# Worksheets: General Chemistry (Traditional)

- Page ID
- 11039

\( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

In an effort to introduce more engaged learning in courses, you can assign worksheets for the discussions. This helps to standardize class variability in their discussions and provides a consistent platform for the students to work from.

- Buffers and Titration Curves (Worksheet)
- Buffer systems are an important application of acid–base equilibria. The study of acid–base equilibria is very useful because many other chemical systems can be understood through the same mathematical approach. The most common experimental method used to study acid–base systems is titration analysis, through which we can determine the pKa of a weak acid and the pKb of its conjugate base, the two essential components of a buffer.

- Chemical Bonding (Worksheet)
- Chemical bonds are the attractive forces that hold atoms together in the form of compounds. A chemical bond is formed when electrons are shared between two atoms. There are three types of bonds: covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds and ionic bonds.

- Colligative Properties (Worksheet)
- This discussion worksheet addresses the bases of the four colligative properties commonly tough: Vapor pressure lowering, melting point depression, boiling point elevation and osmotic pressure. An introduction to activity is given within the experimental context that the effective concentration in experimental colligative properties do not match the theoretical under high concentration. No background is needed to be discussed to complete the worksheet

- Crystal Field Theory (Worksheet)
- Crystal field theory is one of the simplest models for explaining the structures and properties of transition metal complexes. The theory is based on the electrostatics of the metal-ligand interaction, and so its results are only approximate in cases where the metal-ligand bond is substantially covalent. But because the model makes effective use of molecular symmetry, it can be surprisingly accurate in describing the magnetism, colors, structure, and relative stability of metal complexes.

- Density and Archimedes' Principle (Worksheet)
- Archimedes realized that all bodies "lose" a little weight when placed in water, and the bigger their volume, the more weight they lose. He realized that the density of a metal can be found from its weight and its weight loss in water. The weight of the King's crown and its apparent loss of weight in water would tell him if it were made out of pure gold. Archimedes shouted "Eureka!" (I have found it!) and rushed out into the street naked to announce his conclusions.

- Dipole Moments (Worksheets)
- For each of the following, determine if the molecule would have a dipole moment (polar or nonpolar):

- Entropy and Probability (Worksheet)
- This discussion worksheet addresses entropy as a measure of number of states available at a specific temperature. The distinction between macrostates and microstates is given within the context of individual molecules within a two-compartment system. Weights are introduced that quantify the number of microstates possible for an observed macrostate .This is connected to probability of its observation. Entropy is defined in terms of weights. A "disorder" argument is not invoked.

- Equilibria and Equilibrium Constants (Worksheet)
- This discussion worksheet addresses equilibria and equilibrium constants. A basic introduction to equilibrium constants should be given before hand including: the law of mass action, reaction quotients, Le Châtelier's principle (qualitatively in terms of driving a reaction toward a new equilibrium) and a basis of thermodynamics (including Gibbs energies and spontaneity).

- Worksheet 2: Heat and Hess
- This discussion worksheet is more an exercises based approach toward calculating heat and temperatures changes associated with heating a system. The application of Hess's law is given, but no motivation is given for its formulation.

- Intermolecular Forces and Interactions (Worksheet)
- This discussion worksheet addresses intermolecular forces separated into four categories: permanent-permanent electrostatic, permanent-induced electrostatic, instantaneous-induced electrostatic (London) and repulsive. These forces are discussed within Coulomb's law and connects forces to a potential energy. The distance dependence of each of the forces is given and multi-polar expansion. The application of different forces to specific systems is given and extension to experimental observables.

- Pure Phases and their Transitions (Worksheet)
- This discussion worksheet addresses the phases of pure states and the transitions between phases. This includes both constant pressure and constant temperature changes. No introductory discussion is needed for students to complete.

- Worksheet 6: Solutions and Vapor Pressures
- This discussion worksheet addresses vapor pressure lowering and boiling point elevation in solutions (two of the four colligative properties commonly taught). The worksheet aims to draw the connection between depression of vapor pressure and increase of boiling point. A connection to entropy is proposed and the Raoult's law is discussed, including positive and negative deviations and the justifications for observing these non-ideal behavior.