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Acids and Bases 1 (Worksheet)

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    Name: ______________________________

    Section: _____________________________

    Student ID#:__________________________

    Work in groups on these problems. You should try to answer the questions without referring to your textbook. If you get stuck, try asking another group for help.

    H-Containing Molecules HO- & -OH Containing Molecules
    Formula Red Litmus Blue Litmus Formula Red Litmus Blue Litmus
    HCl Red Red HClO (HOCl) Red Red
    CH4 Red Blue Al(OH)3 Blue Blue
    NaH Blue Blue CH3OH Red Blue
    HI Red Red H3PO4 Red Red
    H2O Red Blue CH3CH2OH Red Blue
    SrH2 Blue Blue LiOH Blue Blue
    H2S Red Red HNO2 Red Red
    KH Blue Blue HCOOH Red Red
    HF Red Red Be(OH)2 Blue Blue
    HBr Red Red H2SO3 Red Red
    CH2O Red Blue OCHCH2OH Red Blue

    1. Which compounds from the list are acidic?

    2. Which compounds from the list are basic?

    3. Which compounds from the list are n?

    Observation Set 2

    Improving upon the capabilities of indicator paper, pH meters are able to quantitatively measure the acidity of a solution. All pH values that follow are measurements of 0.010 M solutions. For ions, the values represent solutions of the sodium salts of the ion. Drawing Lewis structures will help you see the structure–pH relationship more clearly. If uncertain of the atom attachments ask your instructor.

    Species pH Species pH Species pH
    HClO4 2.00 SO32– 9.60 H2S 4.50
    H2SO4 2.00 HCl 2.00 HPO42– 9.60
    H3PO4 2.24 H2PO4 4.60 HBr 2.00
    ClO 9.73 HI 2.00 SO42– 7.00
    ClO4 7.00 H2SO3 2.18 PO43– 11.89
    HSO4 2.88 CH3COOH 3.37 NaOH 12.00
    HClO 4.73 HS 9.50 HNO2 2.72
    HSO3 4.60 H2O 7.00 Cl 7.00

    4. Rank the acids by increasing acid strength:

    5. Rank the bases by increasing base strength:

    6. Are the anions (conjugate bases) of strong acids: basic, neutral or acidic?

    7. Are the anions (conjugate bases) of weak acids: basic, neutral or acidic?

    Observation Set 3

    The concepts of partial atomic charges and relative electronegativities can be used to predict the acid–base properties of molecules. These partial hydrogen charges (δ+) have been calculated based on the electronegativities of the atoms.

    Species H's Charge (δ+) Species H's Charge (δ+)
    CH4 +0.012 H2PO4 +0.36
    HClO +0.34 H2O +0.26
    HSO3 +0.28 HSO4 +0.30
    H2SO4 +0.53 HClO4 +0.57
    CH3COOH +0.35 (OH) CH3OH +0.30 (OH)
    +0.099 (CH) +0.050 (CH)
    H3PO4 +0.36 H2S +0.30
    Al(OH)3 +0.23 HPO4 +0.26

    8. Rank the following in order of increasingly positive hydrogen charge:

    a) HClO2, HCl, CH4, H2O, HClO

    < < < <

    b) OClOH, ClOH, IOH, O3ClOH, O2ClOH

    < < < <

    9. Rank the acids by increasing acid strength:

    10. Explain in terms of the partial charge on hydrogen why NaOH is a base, HClO is a weak acid and HClO4 is a strong acid.

    11. Why is HCl a strong acid and HClO a weak acid?

    12. Why are HCl and HClO4 both strong acids?

    13. For each of the reactions below, classify the reactants as an acid or a base and the products as the conjugate acid or conjugate base.

    a) CN + H2O -> HCN + OH

    b) B(OH)3 + 2 H2O -> B(OH)4 + H3O+

    c) H2O + HCl -> H3O+ + Cl

    d) 4 LiH + AlCl3 -> LiAlH4 + 3 LiCl

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