The electronic structures of atoms developed during the first half of the twentieth century. The periodic repetition of chemical properties discovered by Mendeleev led G. N. Lewis to the conclusion that atoms must have a shell structure. This was confirmed by wave mechanics. Only certain specific wave patterns are possible for an electron in an atom, and these electron clouds are arranged in concentric shells.
- 5.3: Lewis Diagrams
- Lewis used simple diagrams (now called Lewis diagrams) to keep track of how many electrons were present in the outermost, or valence, shell of a given atom. The kernel of the atom, i.e., the nucleus together with the inner electrons, is represented by the chemical symbol, and only the valence electrons are drawn as dots surrounding the chemical symbol.