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Chemistry LibreTexts

11: Chemical Bonding II: Additional Aspects

  • Page ID
    • 11.1: What a Bonding Theory Should Do
    • 11.2: Introduction to the Valence-Bond Method
      Although both Lewis and VSEPR structures contain localized electron-pair bonds, but do not use atomic orbitals to predict the stability of the bond. Doing so forms the basis for a description of chemical bonding known as valence bond theory, which is built on two assumptions: The strength of a covalent bond is proportional to the amount of overlap between atomic orbitals and an atom can use different combinations of atomic orbitals to maximize the overlap of orbitals used by bonded atoms.
    • 11.3: Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
      The localized valence bonding theory uses a process called hybridization, in which atomic orbitals that are similar in energy, but not equivalent are combined mathematically to produce sets of equivalent orbitals that are properly oriented to form bonds. These new combinations are called hybrid atomic orbitals because they are produced by combining (hybridizing) two or more atomic orbitals from the same atom.
    • 11.4: Multiple Covalent Bonds
      So far in our molecular orbital descriptions we have not dealt with polyatomic systems with multiple bonds. To do so, we can use an approach in which we describe σσ bonding using localized electron-pair bonds formed by hybrid atomic orbitals, and ππ bonding using molecular orbitals formed by unhybridized np atomic orbitals.
    • 11.5: Molecular Orbital Theory
      The positions and energies of electrons in molecules can be described in terms of molecular orbitals (MOs) A particular spatial distribution of electrons in a molecule that is associated with a particular orbital energy.—a spatial distribution of electrons in a molecule that is associated with a particular orbital energy. As the name suggests, molecular orbitals are not localized on a single atom but extend over the entire molecule.
    • 11.6: Delocalized Electrons: Bonding in the Benzene Molecule
    • 11.7: Bonding in Metals
      Bonding in metals and semiconductors can be described using band theory, in which a set of molecular orbitals is generated that extends throughout the solid. The primary learning objective of this Module is to describe the electrical properties of solid using band theory.
    • 11.8: Some Unresolved Issues
    • 11.E: Chemical Bonding II: Additional Aspects (Exercises)