# 16: Acids and Bases


• 16.1: Arrhenius Theory: A Brief Review
• 16.2: Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases
• 16.3: Self-Ionization of Water and the pH Scale
• 16.4: Strong Acids and Strong Bases
Acids and bases that are completely ionized when dissolved in water are called strong acids and strong bases There are only a few strong acids and bases, and everyone should know their names and properties. These acids are often used in industry and everyday life. The concentrations of acids and bases are often expressed in terms of pH, and as an educated person, you should have the skill to convert concentrations into pH and pOH. The pH is an indication of the hydrogen ion concentration, [H+].
• 16.5: Weak Acids and Weak Bases
• 16.6: Polyprotic Acids
An acid that contains more than one ionizable proton is a polyprotic acid. The protons of these acids ionize in steps. The differences in the acid ionization constants for the successive ionizations of the protons in a polyprotic acid usually vary by roughly five orders of magnitude. As long as the difference between the successive values of Ka of the acid is greater than about a factor of 20, it is appropriate to break down the calculations of the concentrations sequentially.
• 16.7: Ions as Acids and Bases
• 16.8: Molecular Structure and Acid-Base Behavior
Inductive effects and charge delocalization significantly influence the acidity or basicity of a compound. The acid–base strength of a molecule depends strongly on its structure. The weaker the A–H or B–H+ bond, the more likely it is to dissociate to form an $$H^+$$ ion. In addition, any factor that stabilizes the lone pair on the conjugate base favors the dissociation of $$H^+$$, making the conjugate acid a stronger acid.
• 16.9: Lewis Acids and Bases

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