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Chemistry LibreTexts

Worksheets: Inorganic Chemistry (Guided Inquery)

  • Page ID
    • Bioinorganic Applications of Coordination Chemistry (Worksheet)
      During the later part of the 20th century, metal-containing compounds began to play an increasing role in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine, so that this class of compounds is called metallo-pharmaceuticals. This activity will help you apply what you have learned about coordination chemistry to a few of the fields in biochemistry and medicine.
    • Catalytic Cycles (Worksheet)
      Catalysis is a kinetic phenomenon, how quickly can we get to a product. It by no means indicates stability or the most thermodynamically favored product. Consider the reaction below, ortho-carborane is a kinetic product and the para-carborane is a thermodynamic product while ionic liquids is a catalyst.
    • Coordination Chemistry: Metal Salts, Metal Complexes and their Names (Worksheet)
      Given the formula for a common inorganic substance, you will be at a disadvantage if you cannot envision what is possibly in the substance and the name of the substance. This activity gets us started on our study of coordination chemistry. It also includes a brief review of the periodic table.
    • Coordination Compounds (Worksheet)
      Transition metals form a large number of compounds with exciting properties. In addition, transition metal complexes with organic ligands (organometallic compounds) and transition metal complexes in biological systems often possess the same geometries.
    • Crystal Field Theory (Worksheet)
      Basic principles of Crystal Fields Theory are discussed.
    • Geometry and Isomerism in Coordination Compounds (Worksheet)
      Coordination compounds can form different isomers. Two main types of isomerism exhibited by coordination compounds are stereoisomerism and structural isomerism. Stereoisomers include both geometric and optical isomers. Structural isomers include linkage, ionization, coordination, and hydrate isomers. The reactivities and properties of different isomers are often not the same and contribute to the wonderful array of applications of coordination compounds.
    • Hexagonal Boron Nitride (Worksheet)
      Hexagonal Boron nitride and graphite are isostructural and isoelectronic. Band gap theory can be used to determine if graphite was an insulator or a conductor. Let’s use the same theory and logic to develop the same information about boron nitride.
    • Isomers in Transition Metal Complexes (Worksheet)
      Resolving and studying the enantiomers has been important in the development of structure-property relationships of transition metal complexes, especially in catalysis and in metallobiological compounds. Current FDA policy requires that when optical isomers of pharmacologically active compounds are possible, they must be separated and tested separately. Enantiomers often have different physiological actions.
    • Ligand Field Model: Applications for Metal Complexes (Worksheet)
      The energy splitting of the d-orbitals can be understood in terms of several models, from the simple electrostatic charge model of crystal field to the sophisticated molecular orbital model of bonding. An understanding of the order of ligands according to their abilities to split the d-orbitals (the spectrochemical series) requires a basic understanding of both models. This activitiy guides you to explore and understand the applications of ligand field splitting in metal complexes.
    • Ligand Field Model for Electronic Structure of Coordination Complexes (Worksheet)
      Coordination complexes are unusual in that they are often beautifully colored, have characteristic colors for different coordination geometries and ligands, and have characteristic and varied magnetic properties. These properties arise from the energy splitting of the metal ion’s d-orbitals in the lower symmetry that the ligands impose. This feature combined with the number of d electrons of the metal determines which orbitals are occupied, possible transitions,  and how many unpaired electrons.
    • Models and Descriptions of Crystal Structures (Worksheet)
      From the structures of compounds in the solid state, we learn the spatial arrangement of the atoms, the bonds, and the inter- and intra-molecular interactions that are all associated with the structure and function. In this activity, by studying the structures of simple salts, you will learn about the classic crystalline structures in which many more complex substances crystallize.
    • Molecules – Structure, Symmetry Classification and Properties (Worksheet)
      Symmetry considerations can precisely predict properties of a molecule such as whether a permanent dipole moment exists and where it lies on the molecular framework, chirality and groups of chemically equivalent atoms. You can also know without any quantitative calculations whatever, how many energy states there are and what transitions between them are allowed. In this activity you will gain essential practice so that symmetry will start to become a useful tool for you.
    • Oxidation States (Worksheet)
      Oxidation states of elements in a compound provide information about size, structure, and chemical reactivity of the compound. Differences in the oxidation state of inorganic transition metals lead to vastly different properties of the particular element or the transition metal complex of which it is a part. This change in the behavior and properties of inorganic transition metal complexes is extremely important and widely used in biological molecules and synthesized complexes alike.
    • Prediction of Products of Redox Reactions between Transition Metal Complexes (Worksheet)
      The presence of multiple oxidation states, redox reactions and ligand substitution reactions are dominant in the chemistry of transition metal complexes. This chemistry is important in the synthesis, application and biochemistry of transition metals.
    • Properties of Octahedral Coordination Compounds (Worksheet)
      The unique properties of coordination compounds are responsible for their often striking colors, reactivities, and their many applications. The most common stereochemistry of transition metal complexes is octahedral, with six ligands arranged around a central metal ion or atom.
    • Reaction Mechanisms and Catalysis (Worksheet)
      Inorganic Chemistry is extremely complex but the reactions that take place at the metal center can be characterized into 5 main groups; ligand substitution, oxidative addition, migratory insertion, reductive elimination and hydrogen abstraction. Understanding these mechanisms will give us a fundamental introduction to catalytic cycles which are one of the main uses for organometallic chemistry.
    • Semiconductors (Worksheet)
      A semiconductor is a material which exhibits increasing conductivity with increasing temperature. Semiconductors are important for computers, cell phones, and other popular technologies and are an area of active research today.
    • Slater’s Rules and Periodicity (Worksheet)
      Effective nuclear charge can be used to estimate atomic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity and to explain observed electron configuration. Slater, developed a set of rules that allows for a “quick and dirty” assessment of nuclear charge. A basic understanding of Slater’s Rules will help us understand periodicity and the nuclear/electron relationship better. The following model states Slater’s rules and shows an example of how they can be used.
    • Strontium-90 (Worksheet)
      Today’s dependence on fossil fuels, the environmental effects of using fossil fuels and the increasing costs of fossil fuels have lead chemists and fuel scientists to investigate other avenues for energy generation. One of these alternatives is nuclear power. Currently, the amount of energy generated by nuclear power is far below its potential. The reasons for this are varied but primary among them is the question, what do we do with the radioactive wastes?
    • Symmetry and Vibrational Spectra (Worksheet)
      An understanding of symmetry allows us to understand the bonding and physical properties of the compounds we are studying. Symmetry can be used to predict the nature of molecular orbitals and to predict both the electronic and vibration spectroscopic modes for a given molecule. We will begin with molecular symmetry, then find the appropriate point groups which will indicate the character tables available for the molecules and ultimately the the active vibrational modes.
    • Trends in the Periodic Table I - Atomic and Ionic Radius (Worksheet)
      Many of the trends in the periodic table are useful tools for predicting electronic properties and chemical reactivities of various species, including transition metal complexes. The radius of transition metal ions in inorganic coordination compounds is of great importance in many biologically relevant coordination compounds.
    • Wade’s Rules (Worksheet)
      Today’s focus will be the structural diversity of the boron hydrides and how we predict structure based on electronics. One way of predicting the structure of these complex, three dimensional molecules is to employ Wade’s Rules. Wade’s Rules are an electron counting method for dealing with these electron deficient and structurally complex molecules.
    • Werner’s Coordination Complexes - Evidence and Arguments (Worksheet)
      Alfred Werner made the break-through in formulating the structure of coordination complexes and eventually received the Nobel Prize for his work. His hypothesis that complexes had coordination numbers, including corresponding sites on a geometrical framework on which the ligands could be placed, formed the basis for modern coordination chemistry. In this activity we examine the lines of evidence that Werner pursued in his research that led to the acceptance of his hypothesis.

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