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4: Organic reactions

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    • 4.1: What is a reaction mechanism
      Homolytic and heterolytic bond breaking and making elementary steps are described, and the reaction mechanism is defined.
    • 4.2: Free Radical Reactions
      Free radical reaction mechanism and its application examples in halogenation of alkanes, combustion, thermal cracking, polymerization, and the aging process are described.
    • 4.3: Acid-base reactions
      Proton exchange reactions, i.e., acid-base reactions, factors that affect the strength of acids, direction of acid-base equilibrium based on the pKa of acids involved, and some simple organic acid-base elementary reaction steps are described. The ionization of amino acids and phosphate groups under physiological conditions is discussed.
    • 4.4: Nucleophilic substitution and elimination reactions
      Nucleophilic substitution and elimination reaction mechanisms and examples of alcohols, ethers, amines, and thiols reactions are described. Effects of factors that affect these reactions and define the conditions of these mechanisms are described
    • 4.5: Nucleophilic acyl substitution reactions
      Nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction mechanisms and their applications to the reactions of carboxylic acid and their derivatives are described. Applications of these reactions for the synthesis of condensation polymers are also described.
    • 4.6: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions
      Nucleophilic addition reaction mechanisms under base-promoted and acid-catalyzed conditions are described and applied to cyanohydrin, hydrates, hemiacetals, and acetals formation.
    • 4.7: Electrophilic addition reactions
      The electrophilic addition mechanism and its application to adding halogen acids and water to akenes and alkynes are described. The concepts of regioselectivity, stereoselective and steriospecific reactions, and tautomerization are described with examples of electrophilic addition reactions.
    • 4.8: Electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions
      The electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism is described and applied to some reactions of benzene, including halogenation, nitration, sulfonation, alkylation, and acylation of benzene examples.
    • 4.9: Reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions
      The redox process is defined, and examples of organic redox reactions, including reduction of alkenes, carbonyl compounds, thiols, and oxidation of alcohols, aldehydes, and disulfide are described.
    • 4.10: Reactions with cyclic transition state
      Examples of reactions involving cyclic five- or six-member transition states, including cyclic hemiacetal formation of monosaccharides, Diels-Alder reactions, and decarboxylation of beta-keto acids, are described.

    This page titled 4: Organic reactions is shared under a Public Domain license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Muhammad Arif Malik.