The objective of this course is to introduce the student to the fundamental concepts of analytical chemistry with particular emphasis on volumetric chemical analysis. The module is designed to familiarize the learner with the principles that underpin chemical reactivity of different types of chemical reactions. The theories, concepts of volumetric analysis and measurements of data as they apply to analytical chemistry are examined. Special emphasis is placed on the application of basic principles of chemical equilibria to acid-base reactions, precipitation reactions, oxidation-reduction (electron –transfer) reactions, and complex ion reactions. We will look in more detail at the quantitative aspects of acid-base titrations.
- 14.1: Sampling and Statistical Analysis of Data
- This activity comprises two fairly distinct study topics: Sampling and Statistical analysis of data. Under “Sampling”, you will be introduced to the concept and challenges of sampling as a means to acquiring a representative laboratory sam- ple from the original bulk specimen. At the end of the subtopic on “sampling”, you will only appreciate that a sampling method adopted by an analyst is an integral part of any analytical methods.
- 14.2: Fundamentals of Volumetric Chemical Analysis, Acid/Base Equilibria & Titrations
- Some of the most important processes in chemical and biological systems are acid-base reactions in aqueous solutions. At the onset of this unit, a review of the topic of acid-base equilibria, together with the properties of acids and bases is undertaken. This is because the concepts of ionic equilibria and reactions are important for a better understanding of the ideas and workings of acid-base neutralization titrations.
- 14.3: Redox Reactions and Titrations
- Chemical reactions in which there is a transfer of electrons from one substance to another are known as oxidation-reduction reactions or redox reactions. The introductory sections of the unit explains the fundamental principles of galvanic cells, the thermodynamics of electrochemical reaction. Some applications of the concept of redox equilibria in explaining oxidation-reduction titrations as a technique for volumetric chemical analysis are also discussed.
- 14.4: Complex ion Equilibria and Complexometric Titrations
- In this unit, the concept of complex ion formation and associated stepwise equilibrium reactions will be examined and discussed. Particular emphasis will be given to the application of the complex ion reactions in complexometric titrations, titrimetric methods based upon complex formation, as a means to quantitative analysis of metal ions in solution. The emphasis will be on how complex ion formation can be used as a basis of a titrimetric method to quantify metal ions in solution.