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    • D.C.Harris, Exploring Chemical Analysis, W.H.Freeman & Company (1997)
    • Douglas A. Skoog and Donald M. West, Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 3rd Edition, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, (1976).
    • Douglas A. Skoog, Donald M. West, James F. Holler and Stanley R. Crouch,Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 8th Edition, Thomson, Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., (2004).
    • Douglas A. Skoog, Donald M. West, James F. Holler and Stanley R. Crouch,Analytical Chemistry: An Introduction, 7th Edition, Thomson, Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., (2000).
    • Harris, D.C., Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 6th Ed., New York: W.H. Free- man and Co., (2002).
    • Henry F. Holtzclaw, Jr., and William R. Robinson, General Chemistry, 8thEdition, D.C. Heath and Company, (1988).
    • Harris, D.C., Exploring Chemical Analysis, 2nd Ed., New York: W.H. Freeman and Co., (2002).
    • H.H. Willard, L.L. Merritt, Jr., J.A. Dean, F.A. Settle, Jr., Instrumental Methods of Analysis, 7th Edition, Wadworth Publishing Company (1988).
    • J.F.Rubinson and K.A.Rubinson, Contemporary Chemical Analysis, Prentice Hall (1998).
    • John R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical Measurements, 2nd Edition, University Science Books, (1997)
    • Philip R. Bevington and D. Keith Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 2nd Edition, WCB/McGraw-Hill, (1992).


    Accuracy: this is the closeness of a result to the correct answer.

    Acid: A substance that yields hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water.

    Base: A substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.

    Base ionization constant (Kb): The equilibrium constant for the base ionization.

    Bronsted acid: A substance that is able to donate a proton.

    Bronsted base: A substance that is capable of accepting a proton.

    Chemical equation: An equation that uses chemical symbols to show what happens during a chemical reaction.

    Chemical equilibrium: A state in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal.

    Chemical reaction:A process in which a substance (or substances) is changed into one or more new substances.

    Complex ion: An ion containing a central metal cation bonded to one or more molecules or ions.

    Common ion effect: The shift in equilibrium caused by the addition of a com- pound having an ion in common with the dissolved substances.

    Determinate errors: these are mistakes, which are often referred to as “bias”. In theory, these could be eliminated by careful technique.

    Diprotic acid: Each unit of the acid yields two hydrogen ions upon ionization.

    End point: The pH at which the indicator changes colour.

    Equilibrium constant (Keq): A number equal to the ratio of the equilibrium concentrations of products to the equilibrium concentrations of reactants, eachraised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient.

    Equivalence point: The point at which the acid has completely reacted with or been neutralized by the base.

    Homogeneous sample: sample is the same throughout.

    Hydronium ion:The hydrated proton, H3O+.

    Indeterminate errors: these are errors caused by the need to make estimates in the last figure of a measurement, by noise present in instruments, etc. Sucherrors can be reduced, but never entirely eliminated.

    Law of mass action: For a reversible reaction at equilibrium and at a constant temperature, a certain ratio of reactant and product concentrations has a constant value, Keq (the equilibrium constant).

    Lewis acid:A substance that can accept a pair of electrons.

    Lewis base: A substance that can donate a pair of electrons.

    Monoprotic acid: Each unit of the acid yields one hydrogen ion upon ionization.

    Neutralization reaction: A reaction between an acid and a base.

    Oxidation reaction: The half-reaction that involves the loss of electrons.

    Oxidation-reduction reaction: A reaction that involves the transfer of electron(s) or the change in the oxidation state of reactants.

    Oxidizing agent: A substance that can accept electrons from another substance or increase the oxidation numbers in another substance.

    pH: The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

    Precision: the reproducibility of a data set; a measure of the ability to obtain the same number (not necessarily the correct number) in every trial.

    Redox reaction: A reaction in which there is either a transfer of electrons or a change in the oxidation numbers of the substances taking part in the reaction.

    Reducing agent: A substance that can donate electrons to another substance or decrease the oxidation numbers in another substance.

    Representative sample: a sample whose content is the same overall as the material from which it is taken from.

    Sampling: this is used to describe the process involved in finding a reasonable amount of material that is representative of the whole.

    Significant figures: The number of meaningful digits in a measured or calculated quantity.

    Solution: A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

    Standard solution: A solution of accurately known concentration.

    Stoichiometrry: The quantitative study of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

      Summary is shared under a CC BY license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Paul M. Shiundu (Arican Virtual University) .

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