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Accuracy: this is the closeness of a result to the correct answer.
Acid: A substance that yields hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water.
Base: A substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.
Base ionization constant (Kb): The equilibrium constant for the base ionization.
Bronsted acid: A substance that is able to donate a proton.
Bronsted base: A substance that is capable of accepting a proton.
Chemical equation: An equation that uses chemical symbols to show what happens during a chemical reaction.
Chemical equilibrium: A state in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal.
Chemical reaction:A process in which a substance (or substances) is changed into one or more new substances.
Complex ion: An ion containing a central metal cation bonded to one or more molecules or ions.
Common ion effect: The shift in equilibrium caused by the addition of a com- pound having an ion in common with the dissolved substances.
Determinate errors: these are mistakes, which are often referred to as “bias”. In theory, these could be eliminated by careful technique.
Diprotic acid: Each unit of the acid yields two hydrogen ions upon ionization.
End point: The pH at which the indicator changes colour.
Equilibrium constant (Keq): A number equal to the ratio of the equilibrium concentrations of products to the equilibrium concentrations of reactants, eachraised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient.
Equivalence point: The point at which the acid has completely reacted with or been neutralized by the base.
Homogeneous sample: sample is the same throughout.
Hydronium ion:The hydrated proton, H3O+.
Indeterminate errors: these are errors caused by the need to make estimates in the last figure of a measurement, by noise present in instruments, etc. Sucherrors can be reduced, but never entirely eliminated.
Law of mass action: For a reversible reaction at equilibrium and at a constant temperature, a certain ratio of reactant and product concentrations has a constant value, Keq (the equilibrium constant).
Lewis acid:A substance that can accept a pair of electrons.
Lewis base: A substance that can donate a pair of electrons.
Monoprotic acid: Each unit of the acid yields one hydrogen ion upon ionization.
Neutralization reaction: A reaction between an acid and a base.
Oxidation reaction: The half-reaction that involves the loss of electrons.
Oxidation-reduction reaction: A reaction that involves the transfer of electron(s) or the change in the oxidation state of reactants.
Oxidizing agent: A substance that can accept electrons from another substance or increase the oxidation numbers in another substance.
pH: The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
Precision: the reproducibility of a data set; a measure of the ability to obtain the same number (not necessarily the correct number) in every trial.
Redox reaction: A reaction in which there is either a transfer of electrons or a change in the oxidation numbers of the substances taking part in the reaction.
Reducing agent: A substance that can donate electrons to another substance or decrease the oxidation numbers in another substance.
Representative sample: a sample whose content is the same overall as the material from which it is taken from.
Sampling: this is used to describe the process involved in finding a reasonable amount of material that is representative of the whole.
Significant figures: The number of meaningful digits in a measured or calculated quantity.
Solution: A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
Standard solution: A solution of accurately known concentration.
Stoichiometrry: The quantitative study of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.