UALR 1403: General Chemistry II
|Unit I: Matter Unit II: Kinetics & Equilibria Unit III: Acid/Base Unit IV: Thermo & Electrochemistry|
- 14.1: Prelude
- Kinetics deals with the time evolution of a system that undergoes a change as it approaches equilibrium. Chemical kinetics is the branch of chemistry dealing with the rates of chemical reactions, that is, how fast they proceed. If a system is at equilibrium, there appears to be no reaction occurring on a macroscopic scale. If a reaction is occurring, the system is in a non-equilbrium state, and kinetics is the study of how it evolves over time until equilibrium is achieved.
- 14.2: Rates of Chemical Reactions
- The rate of reaction, often called the "reaction velocity" is a measure of how fast a reaction occurs. As a reaction proceeds in the forward direction products are produced as reactants are consumed, and the rate is how fast this occurs. As we shall see later in this chapter, the rate is often influenced by the concentration of reactants, and so it is common to describe this rate in terms of concentration.
- 14.3: Reaction Conditions and Rate
- In this section we will introduce some of the conditions that influence the rate of reaction. Later in this chapter we will take a deeper look at each of these conditions, and we are covering them now to give you a big picture of where we are going. The four major conditions we will cover are: Concentration, Temperature, Catalyst, and Surface Areas (heterogeneous systems)
- 14.4: Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate
- The effect of concentration on the rate of reaction is described by a power function, known as the Rate Law.
- 14.5: Integrated Rate Law
- The rate law is a differential equation, meaning that it describes the change in concentration of reactant (s) per change in time. Using calculus, the rate law can be integrated to obtain an integrated rate equation that links concentrations of reactants or products with time directly.
- 14.6: Energetics and Reaction Rates
- In this section we will look at the temperature dependence of the rate law, and the effect of catalysts.