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Chemistry LibreTexts

1: Introduction and Review

  • Page ID
  • Learning Objectives

    After reading this chapter and completing ALL the exercises, a student can be able to

    • discuss the origins of organic chemistry - refer to section 1.1
    • use and apply the language of Atomic Structure (atomic number, mass number, isotopes) - refer to section 1.2
    • draw, interpret, and convert between Lewis (Kekule), Condensed, and Bond-line Structures - refer to sections 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6
    • apply bonding patterns and polarity to organic compounds - refer to section 1.7 and 1.8
    • identify polar bonds and compounds - refer to section 1.9
    • draw resonance forms and predict the relative contribution of each resonance form to the overall structure of the compound or ion - refer to section 1.10
    • recognize acids and bases - refer to sections 1.11 and 1.12
    • use the definition of Lewis Acids and Bases to recognize electron movement in reactions - refer to section 1.13
    • predict reaction products of acid-base reactions - refer to sections 1.11, 1.12 ,and 1.13
    • determine relative strengths of acids and bases from their pKa values - refer to section 1.14
    • determine the form of an acid or base at a specified pH (given the pKa) - refer to section 1.14
    • predict relative strengths of acids and bases from their structure, bonding and resonance - refer to section 1.15
    • determine the empirical and molecular formulas from combustion data - refer to section 1.16

    • 1.1: The Origins of Organic Chemistry
      The term "organic chemistry" was first used in the 1800's to distinguish reactions performed by chemists from those occurring within living organisms.
    • 1.2: Principles of Atomic Structure (Review)
      Atomic structure is applied to several topics of organic chemistry.  We will use atomic numbers and isotopes to determine priorities in nomenclature and stereoisomerism and mass numbers and isotopic distribution will be applicable in mass spectrometry.
    • 1.3: Electronic Structure (Review)
      A basic knowledge of the electronic structure of atoms requires an understanding of the properties of waves and electromagnetic radiation.
    • 1.4: Electron Configurations
      The electron configuration of an atom indicates the number of valence electrons.  Valence electrons determine the unique chemistry of each element.
    • 1.5: Octet Rule - Ionic and Covalent Bonding (Review)
      By now we can all recite the Octet Rule in our sleep:  atoms gain, lose, or share electrons to fill their s and p subshells to create stable compounds and ions.
    • 1.6: Lewis Structures
      Lewis structures show us how atoms come together to create compounds and ions according to the octet rule.  Recognizing the formal charge of some common bonding patterns will be helpful in learning reaction mechanisms.
    • 1.7: Common Bonding Patterns for Organic Chemistry
      For organic chemistry, the common bonding patterns of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen have useful applications to chemical structure and reactivity.
    • 1.8: Structural Formulas - Lewis, Kekule, Bond-line, Condensed,
      Here you will learn how to understand, write, draw, and talk-the-talk of organic molecules. Organic molecules can get complicated and large, so o-chemists have developed short hand notations to communicate structure.
    • 1.9: Electronegativity and Bond Polarity (Review)
      Recognizing and distinguishing between polar and nonpolar compounds is an essential skill for organic chemistry.  Polarity is the underlying factor of intermolecular forces and polar bonds are often a source of chemical reactivity.
    • 1.10: Resonance
      Resonance delocalizes shared electrons over three or more atoms to lower the electron density and stabilize the compound or ion.
    • 1.11: Arrhenius Acids and Bases (Review)
      Arrhenius acids form hydrogen ions in aqueous solution with Arrhenius bases forming hydroxide ions.
    • 1.12: Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases (Review)
      A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor, while a Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor.
    • 1.13: Lewis Acids and Bases
      Lewis acids are electron acceptors and Lewis bases are electron donors.  The electron flow in Lewis acid-base chemistry prepares us for the electron flow of many organic reactions.
    • 1.14: Distinguishing between pH and pKa
      The pKa of a compound is empirically determined similar to the melting point or boiling point.  The pH communicates the environment of the sample as a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration and can be changed.
    • 1.15: Predicting Relative Acidity
      To determine the relative acidity of compounds, we compare the relative stabilities of their conjugate bases.  This skill can be applied to organic reactions when comparing leaving group stability to evaluate reaction pathways.
    • 1.16: Molecular Formulas and Empirical Formulas (Review)
      Identification of unknown organic compounds often begins with the determination of the empirical and molecular formulas.
    • 1.17: Additional Exercises
      This section has additional exercises for the key learning objectives of this chapter.
    • 1.18: Solutions to Additional Exercises
      This section has the solutions to the additional exercises from the previous section.