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6: Acids and bases

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    • 6.1: What is an Acid and a Base?
      General properties of acids and bases are described. Arrhenius's definitions and nomenclature of Arrhenius's acids and bases are also presented.
    • 6.2: Brønsted–Lowry acids and bases
      Brønsted–Lowry's definition, i.e., acids are proton donors, and bases are proton acceptors are described. The related terms: acid/conjugate bases pair, mono- di-, tri-protic acids, and amphoteric substances are also described.
    • 6.3: Strength of acids and bases
      The strength of acids and bases, i.e., the extent of dissociation of the dissolved acid or base into ions in water is described. The relative strength of the acid/conjugate base pair is also explained.
    • 6.4: Acid-base equilibrium
      The establishment of an equilibrium between an acids-base mixture and its conjugates is described. Ways to move the equilibrium forward or reverse, by varying concentrations, pressure in the cases involving gases, and temperature is explained based on Le Châtelier’s principle.
    • 6.5: Dissociation of water
      About one in half a billion water molecules act as an acid by donating a proton to another water molecule that acts as a base, producing hydroxide ion and hydronium ion, respectively. The product of hydroxide ion and hydronium ion concentration is constant, but the acidic solution has more hydronium ions, the basic solution has more hydroxide ions, and the neutral solution has equal.
    • 6.6: The pH
      pH, i.e., log of reciprocal of hydronium ion concentration, its and measurement using pH paper and pH indicator is described. The importance of and pH of body fluid, acid rain, and its effects are introduced.
    • 6.7: Acid-base reactions
      Reactions of acids with metals, carbonate and bicarbonate salts, and Arrhenius bases are introduced. Ways of representing acid-base reaction by molecular equation, complete ionic equations, net ionic equations, and determination of acid or base concentration by titration method are described.
    • 6.8: pH Buffers
      pH Buffer, i.e., a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or vice versa, is used to regulate the pH within a narrow range. Mechanisms of buffer action and buffer action in the blood are explained.

    This page titled 6: Acids and bases is shared under a Public Domain license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Muhammad Arif Malik.

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