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5: Acid-Base Equilibria

  • Page ID
    364668
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    • 5.1: Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
      Compounds that donate a proton (a hydrogen ion) to another compound is called a Brønsted-Lowry acid. The compound that accepts the proton is called a Brønsted-Lowry base. The species remaining after a Brønsted-Lowry acid has lost a proton is the conjugate base of the acid. The species formed when a Brønsted-Lowry base gains a proton is the conjugate acid of the base. Amphiprotic species can act as both proton donors and proton acceptors. Water is the most important amphiprotic species.
    • 5.2: pH and pOH
      The concentration of hydronium ion in a solution of an acid in water is greater than 1.0×10⁻⁷M at 25 °C. The concentration of hydroxide ion in a solution of a base in water is greater than 1.0×10⁻⁷M M at 25 °C. The concentration of H₃O⁺ in a solution can be expressed as the pH of the solution; pH=−log H₃O⁺. The concentration of OH⁻ can be expressed as the pOH of the solution: pOH=−log[OH⁻].
    • 5.3: Relative Strengths of Acids
      The strengths of Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases in aqueous solutions can be determined by their acid or base ionization constants. Stronger acids form weaker conjugate bases, and weaker acids form stronger conjugate bases. Thus strong acids are completely ionized in aqueous solution because their conjugate bases are weaker bases than water. Weak acids are only partially ionized because their conjugate bases are compete successfully with water for possession of protons.
    • 5.4: pH Calculations for Weak Acids
      The strengths of Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases in aqueous solutions can be determined by their acid or base ionization constants. Stronger acids form weaker conjugate bases, and weaker acids form stronger conjugate bases. Thus strong acids are completely ionized in aqueous solution because their conjugate bases are weaker bases than water. Weak acids are only partially ionized because their conjugate bases are compete successfully with water for possession of protons.
    • 5.5: Relative Strengths of Bases
      The strengths of Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases in aqueous solutions can be determined by their acid or base ionization constants. Stronger acids form weaker conjugate bases, and weaker acids form stronger conjugate bases. Thus strong acids are completely ionized in aqueous solution because their conjugate bases are weaker bases than water. Weak acids are only partially ionized because their conjugate bases are compete successfully with water for possession of protons.
    • 5.6: Relating Structure to Acidity and Basicity
      The strengths of Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases in aqueous solutions can be determined by their acid or base ionization constants. Stronger acids form weaker conjugate bases, and weaker acids form stronger conjugate bases. Thus strong acids are completely ionized in aqueous solution because their conjugate bases are weaker bases than water. Weak acids are only partially ionized because their conjugate bases are compete successfully with water for possession of protons.
    • 5.7: Hydrolysis of Salt Solutions
      The characteristic properties of aqueous solutions of Brønsted-Lowry acids are due to the presence of hydronium ions; those of aqueous solutions of Brønsted-Lowry bases are due to the presence of hydroxide ions. The neutralization that occurs when aqueous solutions of acids and bases are combined results from the reaction of the hydronium and hydroxide ions to form water. Some salts formed in neutralization reactions may make the product solutions slightly acidic or slightly basic.
    • 5.E: Acid-Base Equilibria (Exercises)
      These are homework exercises to accompany the Textmap created for "Chemistry" by OpenStax.


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