In Chapter 9, we discussed the properties of gases. Here, we consider some properties of liquids and solids. As a review, the Table below lists some general properties of the three phases of matter.
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- 13.1: Phase Properties
- Unlike gases, liquids and solids have few properties that can be used to describe all samples. All liquids evaporate. Solids can be divided into amorphous solids and crystalline solids.
- 13.2: Evaporation and Condensation
- Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to its vapor below the boiling temperature of the liquid. Condensation is the change of state from a gas to a liquid. As the temperature increases, the rate of evaporation increases.
- 13.3: Melting, Freezing, Sublimation, and Deposition
- Melting is the conversion of a solid to a liquid. When a solid is converted directly to a gas, the process is known as sublimation. The reverse processes are freezing and deposition, respectively. The temperature at which these conversions occur depends on the attractive forces holding the molecules together.
- 13.4: Energetics of Phase Changes
- Phase changes can occur between any two phases of matter. All phase changes occur with a simultaneous change in energy. All phase changes are isothermal.
- 13.5: Electronegativity and Polarity
- Covalent bonds can be nonpolar or polar, depending on the electronegativities of the atoms involved. Molecules as a whole can also be described as nonpolar or polar, depending on the symmetry of the molecule and polarity of its bonds.
- 13.6: Polarity and Properties
- The overall polarity of a molecule has an impact on the behavior of the molecule itself. Polar molecules tend to have higher melting points and boiling points than nonpolar molecules of a similar size. In addition, solutes tend to dissolve in solvents which have similar polarities to the solute.
- 13.7: Intermolecular Forces
- All substances experience dispersion forces between their particles. Substances that are polar experience dipole-dipole interactions. Substances with covalent bonds between an H atom and N, O, or F atoms experience hydrogen bonding. The preferred phase (solid, liquid, or gas) of a substance and the temperature at which phase changes occur depend on the strength of the intermolecular force and the energy of the particles.
Thumbnail Chapter 13: Ice water. (hamasakihaus via Giphy)