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10: Electrons in Atoms

  • Page ID
    289412
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    • 10.1: Waves
      Light acts like a wave, with a frequency and a wavelength. The frequency and wavelength of light are related by the speed of light, a constant. c = λν
    • 10.2: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      Electromagnetic waves have an extremely wide range of wavelengths, frequencies, and energies. The highest energy form of electromagnetic waves are gamma (γ) rays and the lowest energy form are radio waves.
    • 10.3: Emission Spectra
      An emission spectrum of an element is the unique pattern of light obtained when the element is subjected to heat or electricity. The characteristic spectrum of each element can be used in fields such as astronomy to identify the composition of objects in space.
    • 10.4: The Bohr Model
      Bohr's model suggests each atom has a set of unchangeable energy levels and electrons in the electron cloud of that atom must be in one of those energy levels. Bohr's model suggests that the atomic spectra of atoms is produced by electrons gaining energy from some source, jumping up to a higher energy level, then immediately dropping back to a lower energy level and emitting the energy different between the two energy levels. The existence of the atomic spectra is support for Bohr's model,
    • 10.5: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals
      Quantum mechanics involves the study of material at the atomic level. This field deals with probabilities since we cannot definitely locate a particle. Orbitals are mathematically derived regions of space with different probabilities of having an electron.
    • 10.6: Valence Electrons
      The arrangement of electrons in atoms is responsible for the shape of the periodic table. Valence electrons are those electrons in the highest energy level of an atom. Thus, the number of valence electrons in one atom of an element can be easily determined by its position on the periodic table.
    • 10.7: Periodic Trends
      Certain properties – notably atomic radius, ionization energy, and metallic character – can be qualitatively understood by the positions of the elements on the periodic table.
    • 10.8: For Future Use
    • 10.9: Exercises

     

    Thumbnail Chapter 10: Experiments with a plasma ball. (friedpxels via Giphy)


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