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Organic Reactions

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    • Aldol Condensation
      An aldol condensation is a condensation reaction in organic chemistry in which an enol or an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl compound to form a β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone, followed by dehydration to give a conjugated enone.
    • Cannizzaro Reaction
      The Cannizzaro reaction, named after its discoverer Stanislao Cannizzaro, is a chemical reaction that involves the base-induced disproportionation of an aldehyde lacking a hydrogen atom in the alpha position.
    • Claisen Condensation
      The Claisen condensation is a carbon–carbon bond forming reaction that occurs between two esters or one ester and another carbonyl compound in the presence of a strong base, resulting in a β-keto ester or a β-diketone.
    • Claisen Rearrangement
      The Claisen rearrangement is a carbon–carbon bond-forming chemical reaction discovered by Rainer Ludwig Claisen. The heating of an allyl vinyl ether will initiate a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to give a γ,δ-unsaturated carbonyl.
    • Clemmensen Reduction
      Clemmensen reduction is a chemical reaction described as a reduction of carbonyls to alkanes using zinc amalgam and hydrochloric acid.
    • Dieckmann Condensation
      The Dieckmann condensation is the intramolecular chemical reaction of diesters with base to give β-ketoesters. It is named after the German chemist Walter Dieckmann (1869–1925). The equivalent intermolecular reaction is the Claisen condensation.
    • Formation of Cyclic Ketones by Intramolecular Acylation
      In chemistry, acylation (rarely, but more formally: alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. The compound providing the acyl group is called the acylating agent.
    • Hydroamination Reactions of Alkenes
      Hydroamination reactions of alkenes represent additions of N-H bonds across carbon-carbon double bonds. Viable substrates for these reactions include unactivated alkenes, vinyl arenes, allenes, and strained alkenes. The scope of the nitrogen-containing reactant includes amines, azoles, and N-protected substrates. A variety of catalysts have been employed including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, and lanthanides.
    • Jacobsen Rearrangement
      The Jacobsen rearrangement is a chemical reaction, commonly described as the migration of an alkyl group in a sulfonic acid derived from a polyalkyl- or polyhalobenzene
    • Mannich Reaction
      The Mannich reaction is an organic reaction which consists of an amino alkylation of an acidic proton placed next to a carbonyl functional group by formaldehyde and a primary or secondary amine or ammonia. The final product is a β-amino-carbonyl compound also known as a Mannich base.
    • Periodic Acid Oxidation
      Oxidation with Periodic Acid is used to cleave vicinal diols (a total of two alcohols, one on two  adjacent carbons) into two carbonyl molecules.
    • Preparation of Aliphatic Fluorine Compounds
    • Preparation of Unsymmetrical Biaryls by the Diazo Reaction and the Nitrosoacetylamine Reaction
      Preparation of Unsymmetrical Biaryls by the Diazo Reaction and the Nitrosoacetylamine reaction is an aryl-aryl coupling reaction via a diazonium salt. It is also known as the Gomberg–Bachmann reaction.
    • Reduction with Aluminum Alkoxides (The Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley Reduction)
      Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley (MPV) reduction in organic chemistry is the reduction of ketones and aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols utilizing aluminium alkoxidecatalysis in the presence of a sacrificial alcohol. The beauty of the MPV reduction lies in its high chemoselectivity, and its use of a cheap environmentally friendly metal catalyst.
    • Replacement of the Aromatic Primary Amino Group by Hydrogen
      The Sandmeyer reaction is a chemical reaction used to synthesize aryl halides from aryl diazonium salts. The reaction is a method for substitution of an aromatic amino group via preparation of its diazonium salt followed by its displacement with a nucleophile. The nucleophile in this case is hypophosphorus acid, H3PO2 .
    • Schmidt Reaction
      The Schmidt reaction is the reaction of hydrazoic acid or an alkyl azide with a carbonyl compound, alkene, or alcohol, often in the presence of a Brønsted or Lewis acid. Although the family of Schmidt reactions includes a number of variants, they all result in the migration of a substituent from carbon to nitrogen with loss of a molecule of dinitrogen. This reaction has considerable utility for the synthesis of hindered or cyclic amides and amines.
    • Wacker Oxidation
      The Wacker oxidation refers generally to the transformation of a terminal or 1,2-disubstituted alkene to a ketone through the action of catalytic palladium(II), water, and a co-oxidant.
    • Wittig Reaction
      The Wittig reaction is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a triphenyl phosphonium ylide (often called a Wittig reagent) to give an alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide.

    Thumbnail: a reaction map for ketones (not comprehensive). From Mastering Chemistry (


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