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Reactivity of Anhydrides

  • Page ID
    5896
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    Acid anhydrides are a source of reactive acyl groups, and their reactions and uses resemble those of acyl halides. Acid anhydrides tend to be less electrophilic than acyl chlorides, and only one acyl group is transferred per molecule of acid anhydride, which leads to a lower atom efficiency. The low cost, however, of acetic anhydride makes it a common choice for acetylation reactions.

    • Acid Anhydrides react with alcohols to form esters
      Acid Anhydrides react with alcohols to form esters
    • Acid Anhydrides React with Amines to Form Amides
      Acid Anhydrides react with amines to form amides
    • Acid Anhydrides react with water to form carboxylic acids
      Acid Anhydrides react with water to form carboxylic acids
    • General Mechanism of Anhydride Reactions
      Carboxylic acid derivatives are a group of functional groups whose chemistry is closely related. The main difference is the presence of an electronegative substituent that can act as a leaving group during nucleophile substitution reactions. Although there are many types of carboxylic acid derivatives known we will be focusing on just four:  Acid halides, Acid anhydrides, Esters, and Amides.
    • Reactions of Acid Anhydrides with Nitrogen Compounds
      This page looks at the reactions of acid anhydrides with ammonia and with primary amines. These reactions are considered together because their chemistry is so similar. There is also a great similarity between acid anhydrides and acyl chlorides (acid chlorides) as far as these reactions are concerned.
    • Reactions of Acid Anhydrides with Oxygen Compounds
      This page looks at the reactions of acid anhydrides with water, alcohols and phenols (including the manufacture of aspirin). These reactions are all considered together because their chemistry is so similar. There is also a great similarity between acid anhydrides and acyl chlorides (acid chlorides) as far as these reactions are concerned.


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