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Introductory Chemistry

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    1. The Chemical World1.1 Soda Pop Fizz
    1.2 Chemicals Compose Ordinary Things
    1.3 All Things Are Made of Atoms and Molecules
    1.4 The Scientific Method: How Chemists Think
    1.5 A Beginning Chemist: How to Succeed

    2. Measurement and Problem Solving
    2.1 Measuring Global Temperatures
    2.2 Scientific Notation: Writing Large and Small Numbers
    2.3 Significant Figures: Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision
    2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations
    2.5 The Basic Units of Measurement
    2.6 Problem Solving and Unit Conversion
    2.7 Solving Multistep Conversion Problems
    2.8 Units Raised to a Power
    2.9 Density
    2.10 Numerical Problem-Solving Strategies and the Solution Map

    3. Matter and Energy
    3.1 In Your Room
    3.2 What Is Matter?
    3.3 Classifying Matter According to Its State: Solid, Liquid, and Gas
    3.4 Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
    3.5 Differences in Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
    3.6 Changes in Matter: Physical and Chemical Changes
    3.7 Conservation of Mass: There is No New Matter
    3.8 Energy
    3.9 Energy and Chemical and Physical Change
    3.10 Temperature: Random Motion of Molecules and Atoms
    3.11 Temperature Changes: Heat Capacity
    3.12 Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations

    4. Atoms and Elements
    4.1 Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon
    4.2 Indivisible: The Atomic Theory
    4.3 The Nuclear Atom
    4.4 The Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
    4.5 Elements: Defined by Their Numbers of Protons
    4.6 Looking for Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table
    4.7 Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons
    4.8 Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies
    4.9 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass of an Element’s Atoms

    5. Molecules and Compounds
    5.1 Sugar and Salt
    5.2 Compounds Display Constant Composition
    5.3 Chemical Formulas: How to Represent Compounds
    5.4 A Molecular View of Elements and Compounds
    5.5 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
    5.6 Nomenclature: Naming Compounds
    5.7 Naming Ionic Compounds
    5.8 Naming Molecular Compounds
    5.9 Naming Acids
    5.10 Nomenclature Summary
    5.11 Formula Mass: The Mass of a Molecule or Formula Unit

    6. Chemical Composition
    6.1 How Much Sodium?
    6.2 Counting Nails by the Pound
    6.3 Counting Atoms by the Gram
    6.4 Counting Molecules by the Gram
    6.5 Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors
    6.6 Mass Percent Composition of Compounds
    6.7 Mass Percent Composition from a Chemical Formula
    6.8 Calculating Empirical Formulas for Compounds
    6.9 Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds

    7. Chemical Reactions
    7.1 Grade School Volcanoes, Automobiles, and Laundry Detergents
    7.2 Evidence of a Chemical Reaction
    7.3 The Chemical Equation
    7.4 How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations
    7.5 Aqueous Solutions and Solubility: Compounds Dissolved in Water
    7.6 Precipitation Reactions: Reactions in Aqueous Solution That Form a Solid
    7.7 Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions in Solution Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations
    7.8 Acid–Base and Gas Evolution Reactions
    7.9 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
    7.10 Classifying Chemical Reactions

    8. Quantities in Chemical Reactions
    8.1 Climate Change: Too Much Carbon Dioxide
    8.2 Making Pancakes: Relationships between Ingredients
    8.3 Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions
    8.4 Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions
    8.5 More Pancakes: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield
    8.6 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield from Initial Masses of Reactants
    8.7 Enthalpy: A Measure of the Heat Evolved or Absorbed in a Reaction

    9. Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table
    9.1 Blimps, Balloons, and Models of the Atom
    9.2 Light: Electromagnetic Radiation
    9.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    9.4 The Bohr Model: Atoms with Orbits
    9.5 The Quantum-Mechanical Model: Atoms with Orbitals
    9.6 Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals and Electron Configurations
    9.7 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
    9.8 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model
    9.9 Periodic Trends: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Metallic Character

    10. Chemical Bonding
    10.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs
    10.2 Representing Valence Electrons with Dots
    10.3 Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds: Electrons Transferred
    10.4 Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared
    10.5 Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds
    10.6 Resonance: Equivalent Lewis Structures for the Same Molecule
    10.7 Predicting the Shapes of Molecules
    10.8 Electronegativity and Polarity: Why Oil and Water Don’t Mix

    11. Gases
    11.1 Extra-Long Straws
    11.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases
    11.3 Pressure: The Result of Constant Molecular Collisions
    11.4 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume
    11.5 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature
    11.6 The Combined Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature
    11.7 Avogadro’s Law: Volume and Moles
    11.8 The Ideal Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, Temperature, and Moles
    11.9 Mixtures of Gases: Why Deep-Sea Divers Breathe a Mixture of Helium and Oxygen
    11.10 Gases in Chemical Reactions

    12. Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
    12.1 Interactions between Molecules
    12.2 Properties of Liquids and Solids
    12.3 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension and Viscosity
    12.4 Evaporation and Condensation
    12.5 Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation
    12.6 Types of Intermolecular Forces: Dispersion, Dipole–Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding, and Ion-Dipole
    12.7 Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular, Ionic, and Atomic
    12.8 Water: A Remarkable Molecule

    13. Solutions
    13.1 Tragedy in Cameroon
    13.2 Solutions: Homogeneous Mixtures
    13.3 Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water: How to Make Rock Candy
    13.4 Solutions of Gases in Water: How Soda Pop Gets Its Fizz
    13.5 Specifying Solution Concentration: Mass Percent
    13.6 Specifying Solution Concentration: Molarity
    13.7 Solution Dilution
    13.8 Solution Stoichiometry
    13.9 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation: Making Water Freeze Colder and Boil Hotter
    13.10 Osmosis: Why Drinking Salt Water Causes Dehydration

    14. Acids and Bases
    14.1 Sour Patch Kids and International Spy Movies
    14.2 Acids: Properties and Examples
    14.3 Bases: Properties and Examples
    14.4 Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases
    14.5 Reactions of Acids and Bases
    14.6 Acid–Base Titration: A Way to Quantify the Amount of Acid or Base in a Solution
    14.7 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
    14.8 Water: Acid and Base in One
    14.9 The pH and pOH Scales: Ways to Express Acidity and Basicity
    14.10 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change

    15. Chemical Equilibrium
    15.1 Life: Controlled Disequilibrium
    15.2 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction
    15.3 The Idea of Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium
    15.4 The Equilibrium Constant: A Measure of How Far a Reaction Goes
    15.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria: The Equilibrium Expression for Reactions Involving a Solid or a Liquid
    15.6 Calculating and Using Equilibrium Constants
    15.7 Disturbing a Reaction at Equilibrium: Le Chatelier’s Principle
    15.8 The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium
    15.9 The Effect of a Volume Change on Equilibrium
    15.10 The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium
    15.11 The Solubility-Product Constant
    15.12 The Path of a Reaction and the Effect of a Catalyst

    16. Oxidation and Reduction
    16.1 The End of the Internal Combustion Engine?
    16.2 Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions
    16.3 Oxidation States: Electron Bookkeeping
    16.4 Balancing Redox Equations
    16.5 The Activity Series: Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions
    16.6 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity
    16.7 Electrolysis: Using Electricity to Do Chemistry
    16.8 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions

    17. Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry
    17.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis
    17.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity
    17.3 Types of Radioactivity: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay
    17.4 Detecting Radioactivity
    17.5 Natural Radioactivity and Half-Life
    17.6 Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Other Artifacts
    17.7 The Discovery of Fission and the Atomic Bomb
    17.8 Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity
    17.9 Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun
    17.10 The Effects of Radiation on Life
    17.11 Radioactivity in Medicine - See more at:

    This Textmap is an introductory chemistry text aimed for a single semester or quarter beginning experience to the chemistry field. This Textmap surveys some of the basic topics of chemistry and should give students enough knowledge to appreciate the impact of chemistry in everyday life and, if necessary, prepare students for additional instruction in chemistry.

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    Introductory Chemistry is shared under a CC BY license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Marisa Alviar-Agnew & Henry Agnew.