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Chemistry LibreTexts

Aquatic Chemistry

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  • Water, a natural occurring and abundant substance that exists in solid, liquid, and gas forms on the planet Earth, has attracted the attention of artists, engineers, poets, writers, philosophers, environmentalists, scientists, and politicians. Every aspect of life involves water as food, as a medium in which to live, or as the essential ingredient of life. The food-science aspects of water range from agriculture, aquaculture, biology, biochemistry, cookery, microbiology, nutrition, photosynthesis, power generation, to zoology. Even in the narrow sense of food technology, water is intimately involved in the production, washing, preparation, manufacture, cooling, drying, and hydration of food. Water is eaten, absorbed, transported, and utilized by cells. Facts and data about water are abundant and diverse. This article can only selectively present some fundamental characteristics of water molecules and their collective properties for readers when they ponder food science at the molecular level.

    • 1. Acid-Base Chemistry of Natural Aquatic Systems
    • 2. Carbonate Equilibria in Natural Waters
    • 3. Redox Equilibria in Natural Waters
    • 4. Solids in Contact With Natural Waters
    • Fundamental Characteristics of Water
      The physics and chemistry of water is the backbone of engineering and sciences. The basic data for the properties of pure water, which are found in the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (1), are useful for food scientists. However, water is a universal solvent, and natural waters contain dissolved substances present in the environment. All solutes in the dilute solutions modify the water properties.
    • Natural Water
      Water is the most important resource. Without water life is not possible. From a chemical point of view, water, H2O, is a pure compound, but in reality, you seldom drink, see, touch or use pure water. Water from various sources contains dissolved gases, minerals, organic and inorganic substances. This photograph of Guilin shows the beauty of natural water. The rain curved an interesting landscape out of the lime stones in the area. Natural waters are often important parts of wonders of the world
    • Water Biology
      Since water supports life, living organisms also modify their environment, changing the nature of the water in which they live. Biology of water pollution, lists the syllabus on a course including a laboratory section. Water and biology interweave into an entangled maze waiting for explorers and curious minds.
    • Water Chemistry
      Water is an unusual compound with unique physical properties. As a result, its the compound of life. Yet, its the most abundant compound in the biosphere of Earth. These properties are related to its electronic structure, bonding, and chemistry. However, due to its affinity for a variety of substances, ordinary water contains other substances. Few of us has used, seen or tested pure water, based on which we discuss its chemistry.
    • Water Physics
      Chemical and physical properties of water are often discussed together. These properties are fundamentals of many disciplines such as hydrology, environmental studies, chemical engineering, environmental engineering, civil engineering etc. They are of interest to chemists and physicists of course.
    • Water Treatment
      Water treatment is a process of making water suitable for its application or returning its natural state. Thus, water treatment required before and after its application. The required treatment depends on the application. Water treatment involves science, engineering, business, and art. The treatment may include mechanical, physical, biological, and chemical methods. As with any technology, science is the foundation, and engineering makes sure that the technology works as designed.