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Amino acid biosynthesis

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Sections/problems listed with an asterisk (*) do not discuss the exact reaction indicated, but do discuss a closely related reaction.

 

Alanine (from pyruvate)

 

Aspartate (from oxaloacetate):

 

Glutamate (from alpha-ketoglutarate)

 

Glutamine (from glutamate)

 

Asparagine (from aspartate)

 

Arginine (from glutamate via ornithine, urea cycle)

to arginine via urea cycle:

 

Proline (from glutamate)

 

Serine (from 3-phosphoglycerate)

 

Cysteine (from serine)

or, in bacteria:

 

Glycine (from serine)

 

Lysine (from aspartate)

 

Methionine (from aspartate via homoserine)

 

Threonine (from homoserine)

 

Isoleucine, leucine, and valine (from pyruvate):

to isoleucine:

  • Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.42) Section 14.4E*

to valine:

  • Valine—pyruvate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.66) Section 14.4E*

to leucine:

  • 2-isopropylmalate synthase (EC 2.3.3.13) Section 13.3*
  • Isopropylmalate isomerase (EC 4.2.1.33) P14.7
  • 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.85) Section 16.4*
  • Leucine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.6) Section 14.4E*

 

Aromatic amino acids

Erythrose-4-phosphate to chorismate:

  • DAHP synthase (EC 2.5.1.54) Section 15.2C
  • Dehydroquinate synthase (EC 4.2.3.4) C13.1, 14.1A
  • Dehydroquinate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.10) Section 14.1D
  • Shikimate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.25) Section 16.4*
  • Shikimate kinase (EC 2.7.1.71) P10.2 Section 10.2*
  • 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (EC 2.5.1.19) Section 14.3B, Section 15.4
  • Chorismate synthase (EC 4.2.3.5) Section 14.3B, Section 17.3C

chorismate to tryptophan:

  • Anthranilate synthase (EC 4.1.3.27) P14.8a
  • Anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.18) Section 11.5*
  • Phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.24) P11.12, P13.12
  • Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (EC 4.1.1.48) Section 15.5B
  • Tryptophan synthase (EC 4.2.1.20) Section 13.3C, E13.7, Section 15.5B

chorismate to phenylalanine/tyrosine:

  • Chorismate mutase (EC 5.4.99.5) Section 15.10
  • Prephenate decarboxylase (EC 4.2.1.51) Section 14.3B
  • Aromatic-amino-acid aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.57) Section 14.4E*
  • Tyrosine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.5) Section 14.4E*

 

Histidine

  • ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.17)  Section 11.5*
  • Phosphoribosyl-ATP diphosphatase (EC 3..6.1.31) Section 10.3*
  • Phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase (EC 3.5.4.19) P12.12
  • 1-(5-phosphoribosyl)-5-[(5-phosphoribosylamino)methylideneamino]imidazole-4-carboxamide isomerase (EC 5.3.1.16) P14.8b
  • Imidazole glycerol-phosphate synthase (no EC number assigned) Section 11.6*, C11.1
  • Imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase (4.2.1.19) Section 14.3B
  • Histidinol-phosphate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.9) Section 14.4E*
  • Histidinol-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.15) Section 10.3*
  • Histidinol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.23) Section 16.4D*

 

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