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Amino acid biosynthesis

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    Sections/problems listed with an asterisk (*) do not discuss the exact reaction indicated, but do discuss a closely related reaction.

    Alanine (from pyruvate)

    Aspartate (from oxaloacetate):

    Glutamate (from alpha-ketoglutarate)

    Glutamine (from glutamate)

    Asparagine (from aspartate)

    Arginine (from glutamate via ornithine, urea cycle)

    to arginine via urea cycle:

    • Ornithine transcarbamylase (EC Section 12.2A,B*
    • Argininosuccinate synthetase (EC Section 12.6, Section 14.1D
    • Arginosuccinate lyase (EC Section 14.1D
    • Arginase (EC P12.16

    Proline (from glutamate)

    Serine (from 3-phosphoglycerate)

    Cysteine (from serine)

    or, in bacteria:

    Glycine (from serine)

    Lysine (from aspartate)

    Methionine (from aspartate via homoserine)

    Threonine (from homoserine)

    Isoleucine, leucine, and valine (from pyruvate):

    to isoleucine:

    • Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase (EC Section 14.4E*

    to valine:

    • Valine—pyruvate aminotransferase (EC Section 14.4E*

    to leucine:

    • 2-isopropylmalate synthase (EC Section 13.3*
    • Isopropylmalate isomerase (EC P14.7
    • 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (EC Section 16.4*
    • Leucine aminotransferase (EC Section 14.4E*

    Aromatic amino acids

    Erythrose-4-phosphate to chorismate:

    • DAHP synthase (EC Section 15.2C
    • Dehydroquinate synthase (EC C13.1, 14.1A
    • Dehydroquinate dehydratase (EC Section 14.1D
    • Shikimate dehydrogenase (EC Section 16.4*
    • Shikimate kinase (EC P10.2 Section 10.2*
    • 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (EC Section 14.3B, Section 15.4
    • Chorismate synthase (EC Section 14.3B, Section 17.3C

    chorismate to tryptophan:

    • Anthranilate synthase (EC P14.8a
    • Anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC Section 11.5*
    • Phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase (EC P11.12, P13.12
    • Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (EC Section 15.5B
    • Tryptophan synthase (EC Section 13.3C, E13.7, Section 15.5B

    chorismate to phenylalanine/tyrosine:

    • Chorismate mutase (EC Section 15.10
    • Prephenate decarboxylase (EC Section 14.3B
    • Aromatic-amino-acid aminotransferase (EC Section 14.4E*
    • Tyrosine aminotransferase (EC Section 14.4E*


    • ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (EC Section 11.5*
    • Phosphoribosyl-ATP diphosphatase (EC 3..6.1.31) Section 10.3*
    • Phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase (EC P12.12
    • 1-(5-phosphoribosyl)-5-[(5-phosphoribosylamino)methylideneamino]imidazole-4-carboxamide isomerase (EC P14.8b
    • Imidazole glycerol-phosphate synthase (no EC number assigned) Section 11.6*, C11.1
    • Imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase ( Section 14.3B
    • Histidinol-phosphate transaminase (EC Section 14.4E*
    • Histidinol-phosphatase (EC Section 10.3*
    • Histidinol dehydrogenase (EC Section 16.4D*

    Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis by Tim Soderberg (University of Minnesota, Morris)