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4: Organic Nomenclature - Carbonyl-Containing Compounds

  • Page ID
    340348
    • 4.1: Aldehydes and Ketones
      The common names of aldehydes are taken from the names of the corresponding carboxylic acids: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and so on. The common names of ketones, like those of ethers, consist of the names of the groups attached to the carbonyl group, followed by the word ketone. Stem names of aldehydes and ketones are derived from those of the parent alkanes, using an -al ending for an aldehydes and an -one ending for a ketone.
    • 4.2: Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
      The polar carbon-oxygen double bond causes aldehydes and ketones to have higher boiling points than those of ethers and alkanes of similar molar masses but lower than those of comparable alcohols that engage in intermolecular hydrogen bonding.
    • 4.3: Carboxylic Acids
      Simple carboxylic acids are best known by common names based on Latin and Greek words that describe their source (e.g., formic acid, Latin formica, meaning “ant”). Greek letters, not numbers, designate the position of substituted acids in the common naming convention. IUPAC names are derived from the LCC of the parent hydrocarbon with the -e ending of the parent alkane replaced by the suffix -oic and the word acid.
    • 4.4: Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
      Carboxylic acids have high boiling points compared to other substances of comparable molar mass. Boiling points increase with molar mass. Carboxylic acids having one to four carbon atoms are completely miscible with water. Solubility decreases with molar mass.
    • 4.5: Esters
      An ester has an OR group attached to the carbon atom of a carbonyl group.
    • 4.6: Physical Properties of Esters
      Esters have polar bonds but do not engage in hydrogen bonding and are therefore intermediate in boiling points between the nonpolar alkanes and the alcohols, which engage in hydrogen bonding. Ester molecules can engage in hydrogen bonding with water, so esters of low molar mass are therefore somewhat soluble in water.
    • 4.7: Amides
      Amides have a general structure in which a nitrogen atom is bonded to a carbonyl carbon atom. In names for amides, the -ic acid of the common name or the -oic ending of the IUPAC for the corresponding carboxylic acid is replaced by -amide.
    • 4.8: Physical Properties of Amides
      Most amides are solids at room temperature; the boiling points of amides are much higher than those of alcohols of similar molar mass. Amides of five or fewer carbon atoms are soluble in water.
    • 4.E: Carbonyl-Containing Compounds (Exercises)
    • 4.S: Carbonyl-Containing Compounds (Summary)
      To ensure that you understand the material in this chapter, you should review the meanings of the following bold terms in the summary and ask yourself how they relate to the topics in the chapter.