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Chemistry LibreTexts

3: Organic Nomenclature - Functional Groups

  • Page ID
    • 3.1: Functional Groups
      The functional group, a structural arrangement of atoms and/or bonds, is largely responsible for the properties of organic compound families.
    • 3.2: Alcohols
      In the IUPAC system, alcohols are named by changing the ending of the parent alkane name to -ol. Alcohols are classified according to the number of carbon atoms attached to the carbon atom that is attached to the OH group.
    • 3.3: Phenols
      Phenols are compounds in which an OH group is attached directly to an aromatic ring. Many phenols are used as antiseptics.
    • 3.4: Ethers
      To give ethers common names, simply name the groups attached to the oxygen atom, followed by the generic name ether. If both groups are the same, the group name should be preceded by the prefix di-. Ether molecules have no OH group and thus no intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Ethers therefore have quite low boiling points for a given molar mass. Ether molecules have an oxygen atom and can engage in hydrogen bonding with water molecules. An ether molecule has about the same solubility in water as
    • 3.5: Thiols
      Thiols, thioethers, and disulfides are common in biological compounds.
    • 3.6: Amines - Structures and Names
      An amine is a derivative of ammonia in which one, two, or all three hydrogen atoms are replaced by hydrocarbon groups. Amines are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary by the number of hydrocarbon groups attached to the nitrogen atom. Amines are named by naming the alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom, followed by the suffix -amine.
    • 3.E: Functional Groups (Exercises)
    • 3.S: Functional Groups (Summary)
      To ensure that you understand the material in this chapter, you should review the meanings of the following bold terms in the summary and ask yourself how they relate to the topics in the chapter.

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