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4: Introduction to Solutions

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    • 4.1: Introduction to solutions
      Solutions are homogeneous mixtures. Many solutions contain one component, called the solvent, in which other components, called solutes, are dissolved. An aqueous solution is one for which the solvent is water.
    • 4.2: Solution Concentration
      The concentration of a solution is a measure of the relative amount of solute in a given amount of solution. Concentrations may be measured using various units, with one very useful unit being molarity, defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
    • 4.3: Solution Dilution
      The dilution equation is a simple relation between concentrations and volumes of a solution before and after dilution.
    • 4.4: Hydration of Ions in Aqueous Solutions
      In aqueous solution, dissolved ions become hydrated; that is, a shell of water molecules surrounds them.
    • 4.5: Solubility of Ionic Compounds
      Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in specific amount of solvent. Not all ionic compounds are able soluble in water. We use the solubility rules to predict whether an ionic compound dissolves in water or not.
    • 4.6: Introduction to Acids and Bases
      According to Arrhenius, an acid is compound that produces protons in an aqueous solution, and a base is a compound that produces hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution. According to Brønsted-Lowry definition, a compound that can donate a proton to another compound is called a Brønsted-Lowry acid. The compound that accepts the proton is called a Brønsted-Lowry base. The species remaining after a Brønsted-Lowry acid has lost a proton is the conjugate base of the acid.
    • 4.7: End of Chapter Problems

    4: Introduction to Solutions is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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