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Chemistry LibreTexts

3: Amines and Amides

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    • 3.1: Amines - Structures and Names
      An amine is a derivative of ammonia in which one, two, or all three hydrogen atoms are replaced by hydrocarbon groups. Amines are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary by the number of hydrocarbon groups attached to the nitrogen atom. Amines are named by naming the alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom, followed by the suffix -amine.
    • 3.2: Nomenclature of Amines
    • 3.3: Nitrogen-contaning compounds in Nature
    • 3.4: Physical Properties of Amides
      Most amides are solids at room temperature; the boiling points of amides are much higher than those of alcohols of similar molar mass. Amides of five or fewer carbon atoms are soluble in water.
    • 3.5: Chemical Properties of Amines. Bases and Salt Formation.
      Amines are bases; they react with acids to form salts. Salts of aniline are properly named as anilinium compounds, but an older system is used to name drugs: the salts of amine drugs and hydrochloric acid are called “hydrochlorides.” Heterocyclic amines are cyclic compounds with one or more nitrogen atoms in the ring.
    • 3.6: Amines as Neurotransmitters
    • 3.7: Amides- Structures and Names
      Amides have a general structure in which a nitrogen atom is bonded to a carbonyl carbon atom. In names for amides, the -ic acid of the common name or the -oic ending of the IUPAC for the corresponding carboxylic acid is replaced by -amide.
    • 3.8: Neutrality of Amides
      Amides are neutral compounds -- in contrast to their seemingly close relatives, the amines, which are basic. The amide linkage is planar -- even though we normally show the C-N connected by a single bond, which should provide free rotation.
    • 3.9: Chemistry of Amides- Synthesis and Reactions
      Amides can be synthesized from amides, carboxylic acids, acyl halides, and acid anhydrides.  Amides can be hydrolyzed under acidic or basic conditions and can also be reduced to amines.
    • 3.10: Polyamides

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