Skip to main content
Chemistry LibreTexts

Solubility

  • Page ID
    1608
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    Solubility refers to the concentration of a saturated solution; it can be affected by the following factors.

    • An Introduction to Solubility Products
      This page discusses how solubility products are defined, including their units units. It also explores the relationship between the solubility product of an ionic compound and its solubility.
    • Calculations Involving Solubility Products
      This page is a brief introduction to solubility product calculations.
    • Common Ion Effect
      The common-ion effect is used to describe the effect on an equilibrium involving a substance that adds an ion that is a part of the equilibrium.
    • Pressure Effects On the Solubility of Gases
      The solubility of gases depends on the pressure: an increase in pressure increases solubility, whereas a decrease in pressure decreases solubility. This statement is formalized in Henry's Law, which states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of that gas above the surface of the solution.
    • Relating Solubility to Solubility Product
      this article discusses ionic compounds that are difficult to dissolve; they are considered "slightly soluble" or "almost insoluble." Solubility product constants ( Ksq ) are given to those solutes, and these constants can be used to find the molar solubility of the compounds that make the solute. This relationship also facilitates finding the Ksq of a slightly soluble solute from its solubility.
    • Solubility
      One of the general properties of ionic compounds is water solubility. The oceans are solutions of salt in water. In a mixture, two or more materials are mixed together but they remain essentially separate, like sand and water. The sand can be easily distinguished from the water, because even if a mixture of the two is shaken it will spontaneously separate over time.
    • Solubility and Factors Affecting Solubility
    • Solubility Product Constant, Ksp
    • Solubility Rules
      In order to predict whether a precipitate will form in a reaction, the solubility of the substances involved must be known. There are rules or guidelines determining solubility of substances. If a substance involved is not soluble, the reaction forms a precipitate.
    • Temperature Effects on Solubility
      The solubility of solutes is dependent on temperature. When a solid dissolves in a liquid, a change in the physical state of the solid analogous to melting takes place. Heat is required to break the bonds holding the molecules in the solid together. At the same time, heat is given off during the formation of new solute -- solvent bonds.
    • Temperature Effects on the Solubility of Gases
      The solubility of gases is not constant in all conditions. If temperatures differ, the solubility of gases differ. Additionally, the solvent (the substance that is mixed with a gas to form a solution) can affect the solubility of a gas (its ability to become dissolved and in turn contribute to a formed amount of concentration).


    Solubility is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

    • Was this article helpful?