After you have completed Chapter 11, you should be able to
- fulfill all of the detailed objectives listed under each individual section.
- use the reactions studied in this chapter with those from earlier ones when designing multistep syntheses.
- use the reactions and concepts discussed in this chapter to solve road map problems.
- define, and use in context, the key terms introduced.
In this course, you have already seen several examples of nucleophilic substitution reactions; now you will see that these reactions can occur by two different mechanisms. You will study the factors that determine which mechanism will be in operation in a given situation, and examine possible ways for increasing or decreasing the rates at which such reactions occur. The stereochemical consequences of both mechanisms will also be discussed. Elimination reactions often accompany nucleophilic substitution; so these reactions are also examined in this chapter. Again you will see that two different mechanisms are possible, and, as in the case of nucleophilic substitution reactions, chemists have learned a great deal about the factors that determine which mechanism will be observed when a given alkyl halide undergoes such a reaction.
- 11.10: The E1 and E1cB Reactions
- Unimolecular Elimination (E1) is a reaction in which the removal of an HX substituent results in the formation of a double bond. It is similar to a unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN1) in various ways. One being the formation of a carbocation intermediate. Also, the only rate determining (slow) step is the dissociation of the leaving group to form a carbocation, hence the name unimolecular. Thus, since these two reactions behave similarly, they compete against each other.