Molecular geometry is the 3-dimensional shape that a molecule occupies in space. It is determined by the central atom and the surrounding atoms and electron pairs. The shape of most molecules can be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) method. This method states a few rules to help one determine the shape of a substance without using high technology methods such as X-ray crystallography, NMR Spectroscopy, or electron microscopy. Some of the most common shapes that can be taken are linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, pyramidal, and angular (or bent).
- Bent Molecular Geometry
- The molecule that is made up of 4 equally spaced sp3 hybrid orbitals forming bond angles of approximately 109.5o. The shape of the orbitals is tetrahedral. Two of the orbitals contain lone pairs of electrons. The two atoms connected to the central atom form a molecule with a bent shape.