In 1671, Robert Boyle discovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids, which resulted in the production of hydrogen gas. In 1766-81, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize that hydrogen gas was a discrete substance, and that it produced water when burned. He named it "flammable air". In 1783, Antoine Lavoisier gave the element the name hydrogen (from the Greek υδρο- hydro meaning "water" and -γενης genes meaning "creator") when he and Pierre-Simon Laplace reproduced Cavendish's finding that water was produced when hydrogen was burned. Hydrogen was liquefied for the first time by James Dewar in 1898 by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask. He produced solid hydrogen the next year. Deuterium was discovered in December 1931 by Harold Urey, and tritium was prepared in 1934 by Ernest Rutherford, Mark Oliphant, and Paul Harteck. Heavy water, which consists of deuterium in the place of regular hydrogen, was discovered by Urey's group in 1932.
- 10.3: Isotopes of Hydrogen
- Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, denoted 1H, 2H and 3H. Other, highly unstable nuclei (4H to 7H) have been synthesized in the laboratory but are not observed in nature.
- 10.4: Dihydrogen
- Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas that is the most abundant element in the known universe. It is also the lightest (in terms of atomic mass) and the simplest, having only one proton and one electron (and no neutrons in its most common isotope). It is all around us. It is a component of water (H2O), fats, petroleum, table sugar (C6H12O6), ammonia (NH3), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)—things essential to life, as we know it.
- 10.6: Hydrogen Bonding
- A hydrogen bond is a weak type of force that forms a special type of dipole-dipole attraction which occurs when a hydrogen atom bonded to a strongly electronegative atom exists in the vicinity of another electronegative atom with a lone pair of electrons. These bonds are generally stronger than ordinary dipole-dipole and dispersion forces, but weaker than true covalent and ionic bonds.