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    • 1.1: Open Access Readings
    • 1.2: Introduction to Fermentation and Microbes
    • 1.3: Fermentation Paper
    • 1.4: Basic Metabolic Pathways
    • 1.5: Intro to Microbial Metabolism
    • 1.6: Vinegar and Acetic Acid Fermentation
    • 1.7: Carbohydrates
    • 1.8: Fermented Vegetables
    • 1.9: Cheese Production
      Cheese making is essentially a dehydration process in which milk casein, fat and minerals are concentrated 6 to 12-fold, depending on the variety. The basic steps common to most varieties are acidification, coagulation, dehydration, and salting.
    • 1.10: Yeast Metabolism
      Yeasts are ubiquitous unicellular fungi widespread in natural environments. Yeast have a broad set of carbon sources (e.g., polyols, alcohols, organic acids and amino acids) that they can metabolize but they prefer sugars. Yeast are capable of metabolizing hexoses (glucose, fructose, galactose or mannose) and disaccharides (maltose or sucrose) as well as compounds with two carbons (ethanol or acetate).
    • 1.11: Yogurt
      Yogurt has been around for several millennia. Today, the FDA defines yogurt as a milk product fermented by two bacterial strains: a lactic acid producing bacteria: Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophiles.
    • 1.12: Bread
      Bread is a staple food in many cultures. The key ingredients are a grain starch, water, and a leavening agent. However, there are some breads without leavening agents (tortillas or naan), but these are flat breads.
    • 1.13: Beer
    • 1.14: Cider
      Cider is a drink made from apples. In the US, cider can refer to apple juice or the fermented, alcoholic version. This section will focus on the fermented, alcoholic drink.
    • 1.15: Wine
      Wine is defined as the fermented juice of a fruit. Wines have been produced from all kinds of plant materials and fruits. However, the most classic version is made from grapes.
    • 1.16: Distilled Spirits
      Distilled spirits are all alcoholic beverages in which the concentration of ethanol has been increased above that of the original fermented mixture by a method called distillation.

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