# 3: Group I cations

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• 3.1: Separation of group I cations
Group I cations are separated based on the solubility rule that states "Salts of chloride, bromide, and Iodide are soluble, except when the cation is Lead(II), Mercury(I), or Silver(I). Hydrochloric acid is the reagent that provides chloride ions. Calculations of the chloride concentration needed are shown based on the solubility product constant.
• 3.2: Separation and confirmation of individual ions in group I precipitates
Lead(II) chloride is separated from the group I precipitates by selectively dissolving in hot water and re-precipitated by cooling the water. Ammonia dissolves silver(I) chloride from the remaining precipitates by making a complex ion and turns Mercury(I) chloride from white to gray by autooxidation process. The white silver(I) chloride is re-precipitated from the ammonia complex solution by changing the medium from alkaline to acidic.
• 3.3: Procedure, flowchart, and datasheets for separation and confirmation of group I cations
Procedure, flowchart, and datasheets for separation and confirmation of group I cations, i.e., lead(II), mercury(I), and silver(I) are given.

This page titled 3: Group I cations is shared under a Public Domain license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Muhammad Arif Malik.