# Qualitative Analysis of Common Cations in Water (Malik)


The purpose of these experiments is to teach chemical principles behind experimental techniques required for the separation and identification of chemical substances. The techniques will be applied for the separation and identification of fourteen important cations in water solution as a model. The fourteen cations include: barium ($$\ce{Ba^{2+}}$$), Bismuth(III) ($$\ce{Bi^{3+}}$$, calcium ($$\ce{Ca^{2+}}$$, cadmium(II) ($$\ce{Cd^{2+}}$$, chromium(III) ($$\ce{Cr^{3+}}$$, copper(II) ($$\ce{Cu^{2+}}$$, iron(II) ($$\ce{Fe^{2+}}$$, iron(III) ($$\ce{Fe^{3+}}$$, lead (II) ($$\ce{Pb^{2+}}$$, mercury(I) ($$\ce{Hg2^{2+}}$$, nickel(II) ($$\ce{Ni^{2+}}$$, potassium (K+), silver(I) (Ag+), sodium (Na+), and tin(IV) (Sn4+). The cations will be separated into sets of five groups and then ions within each group will be separated and identified. The exercises will involve dissolution, precipitation, acid-base, and oxidation-reduction reactions controlled based on solubility variations with counter ions, Le Chatelier's principle, common ion effect, pH control, etc. The use of chelating agents and redox-reagents will be demonstrated with practical examples. The chemistry principles involved will be described first, followed by a review of the basic experimental technique used in these experiments. Then, the separation of groups of cations followed by the separation and identification of ions within each group will be described.

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