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10: Metabolism of Amino Acids

  • Page ID
    234045
    • 10.1: Proteins metabolism
    • 10.2: Amino Acids Degradation
      Generally the first step in the breakdown of amino acids is the removal of the amino group, usually through a reaction known as transamination. The carbon skeletons of the amino acids undergo further reactions to form compounds that can either be used for the synthesis of glucose or the synthesis of ketone bodies.
    • 10.3: Urea Cycle
      Yet another cyclic pathway important in cells is the urea cycle (Figure 7.5.1). With reactions spanning the cytoplasm and the mitochondria, the urea cycle occurs mostly in the liver and kidney. The cycle plays an important role in nitrogen balance in cells and is found in organisms that produce urea as a way to excrete excess amines.
    • 10.4: Amino Acid Synthesis
      In humans, only half of the standard amino acids (Glu, Gln, Pro, Asp, Asn, Ala, Gly, Ser, Tyr, Cys) can be synthesized, and are thus classified the nonessential amino acids. Within this group, the first three, glutamate, glutamine, and proline, have a shared anabolic pathway. It begins with glutamate dehydrogenase, which adds ammonia to α-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH to form glutamate. This is a key reaction for all amino acid synthesis.
    • 10.5: Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      All of the catabolic pathways for carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids eventually connect into glycolysis and the citric acid cycle pathways (see Figure 7.6.2). Metabolic pathways should be thought of as porous—that is, substances enter from other pathways, and intermediates leave for other pathways. These pathways are not closed systems. Many of the substrates, intermediates, and products in a particular pathway are reactants in other pathways.

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