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Chemistry LibreTexts

5: Chemical Bond II

  • Page ID
    221352
    • 5.1: Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams
      Lewis electron dot diagrams use dots to represent valence electrons around an atomic symbol. Lewis electron dot diagrams for ions have less (for cations) or more (for anions) dots than the corresponding atom.
    • 5.2: Covalent Bonds
      Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons. Lewis electron dot diagrams can be drawn to illustrate covalent bond formation. Double bonds or triple bonds between atoms may be necessary to properly illustrate the bonding in some molecules.
    • 5.3: The Covalent structure of Polyatomic Ions
      Polyatomic ions, common in any lab, contain several atoms covalently bonded together. Often, these ions are charged and combine with metals to form ionic bonds.
    • 5.4: Exceptions to the Octet Rule
      Every spring, millions of Americans file their income tax forms. The different rules determine how much tax a person pays. There are also exceptions to the rules. You pay less tax if you are married and/or have children. There are certain limits on how much money you can make before paying taxes. The rule is that you pay taxes, but there are also exceptions based on your personal situation. The bonding rules for molecules are generally applicable, but there are some exceptions allowed.
    • 5.5: Resonance - Equivalent Lewis Structures for the Same Molecule
      Resonance structures are averages of different Lewis structure possibilities. Bond lengths are intermediate between covalent bonds and covalent double bonds.
    • 5.6: Covalent Compounds - Formulas and Names
      The chemical formula of a simple covalent compound can be determined from its name. The name of a simple covalent compound can be determined from its chemical formula.
    • 5.7: Multiple Covalent Bonds
      Some molecules must have multiple covalent bonds between atoms to satisfy the octet rule.
    • 5.8: Characteristics of Covalent compounds
      Covalent bonds between different atoms have different bond lengths. Covalent bonds can be polar or nonpolar, depending on the electronegativity difference between the atoms involved.
    • 5.9: Molecular Geometry
      VSEPR theory predicts the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule. It states that valence electrons will assume an electron-pair geometry that minimizes repulsions between areas of high electron density (bonds and/or lone pairs). Molecular structure, which refers only to the placement of atoms in a molecule and not the electrons, is equivalent to electron-pair geometry only when there are no lone electron pairs around the central atom.
    • 5.10: Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
      Covalent bonds can be nonpolar or polar, depending on the electronegativities of the atoms involved. Covalent bonds can be broken if energy is added to a molecule. The formation of covalent bonds is accompanied by energy given off. Covalent bond energies can be used to estimate the enthalpy changes of chemical reactions.
    • 5.11: Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions
      Polyatomic ions are everywhere and this pages introduces you to familiar polyatomic ions that often form ionic bonds.
    • 5.12: Metallic Bonding
    • 5.13: Network Covalent Atomic Solids- Carbon and Silicates
      Covalent solids are formed by networks or chains of atoms or molecules held together by covalent bonds. A perfect single crystal of a covalent solid is therefore a single giant molecule.

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