Rotational spectroscopy is concerned with the measurement of the energies of transitions between quantized rotational states of molecules in the gas phase. The spectra of polar molecules can be measured in absorption or emission by microwave spectroscopy or by far infrared spectroscopy.
- Microwave Rotational Spectroscopy
- Microwave rotational spectroscopy uses microwave radiation to measure the energies of rotational transitions for molecules in the gas phase. It accomplishes this through the interaction of the electric dipole moment of the molecules with the electromagnetic field of the exciting microwave photon.
- Rotational Spectroscopy of Diatomic Molecules
- The rotation of a diatomic molecule can be described by the rigid rotor model. To imagine this model think of a spinning dumbbell. The dumbbell has two masses set at a fixed distance from one another and spins around its center of mass (COM). This model can be further simplified using the concept of reduced mass which allows the problem to be treated as a single body system.
- Rotation of Linear Molecules
- The rotational energy levels of a diatomic molecule in 3D space is given by the quantum mechanical solution to the rotating rigid rotor.
- Rovibrational Spectroscopy
- In this section, we will learn how the rotational transitions of molecules can accompany the vibrational transitions. It is important to know how each peak correlates to the molecular processes of molecules. Rovibrational spectra can be analyzed to determine average bond length.
Thumbnail: Rotation-Vibration Transitions