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14: Spectroscopy

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    The focus of this chapter is on the interaction of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation with matter. Because these techniques use optical materials to disperse and focus the radiation, they often are identified as optical spectroscopies. For convenience we will use the simpler term spectroscopy in place of optical spectroscopy; however, you should understand that we are considering only a limited part of a much broader area of analytical techniques.

    • 14.1: Vocabulary
    • 14.2: Microwave Spectroscopy
      Microwave rotational spectroscopy uses microwave radiation to measure the energies of rotational transitions for molecules in the gas phase. It accomplishes this through the interaction of the electric dipole moment of the molecules with the electromagnetic field of the exciting microwave photon.
    • 14.3: Infrared Spectroscopy
      Infrared Spectroscopy is the analysis of infrared light interacting with a molecule. This can be analyzed in three ways by measuring absorption, emission and reflection. The main use of this technique is in organic and inorganic chemistry. It is used by chemists to determine functional groups in molecules. IR Spectroscopy measures the vibrations of atoms, and based on this it is possible to determine the functional groups.5 Generally, stronger bonds and light atoms will vibrate at a high stretch
    • 14.4: Electronic Spectroscopy
      This page explains what happens when organic compounds absorb UV or visible light, and why the wavelength of light absorbed varies from compound to compound.
    • 14.5: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
      Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a nuceli (Nuclear) specific spectroscopy that has far reaching applications throughout the physical sciences and industry. NMR uses a large magnet (Magnetic) to probe the intrinsic spin properties of atomic nuclei. Like all spectroscopies, NMR uses a component of electromagnetic radiation (radio frequency waves) to promote transitions between nuclear energy levels (Resonance).
    • 14.6: Electron Spin Resonance
      Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a remarkably useful form of spectroscopy used to study molecules or atoms with an unpaired electron. It is less widely used than NMR because stable molecules often do not have unpaired electrons. However, EPR can be used analytically to observe labeled species in situ either biologically or in a chemical reaction.
    • 14.7: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
      Fluorescence and phosphorescence are photoluminescence processes in which material emits photons after excitation.
    • 14.8: Lasers
      LASER is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Laser is a type of light source which has the unique characteristics of directionality, brightness, and monochromaticity. The goal of this module is to explain how a laser operates (stimulated or spontaneous emission), describe important components, and give some examples of types of lasers and their applications.
    • 14.9: Optical Rotatory Dispersion and Circular Dichroism
      Circular Dichroism, an absorption spectroscopy, uses circularly polarized light to investigate structural aspects of optically active chiral media. It is mostly used to study biological molecules, their structure, and interactions with metals and other molecules.
    • 14.E: Spectroscopy (Exercises)

    14: Spectroscopy is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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