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5: Carbohydrates

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    • 5.1: What are carbohydrates
      Carbohydrates, monosaccharides, and polysaccharides are defined, and their general formula and functional groups and drawing Fisher projections are described.
    • 5.2: General class names and Common names of monosaccharides
      Class names, common names, D/L stereodescriptors, and drawing Fisher projections of important monosaccharides are described.
    • 5.3: Cyclic structures of monosaccharides
      Cyclic hemiacetal forms of monosaccharides and the related terms, like Howarth projections, anomeric carbon, alpha- and beta-configurations of anomeric carbon, furanose, and pyranose forms, and mutarotation are described.
    • 5.4: Reactions of monosaccharides
      Reactions of monosaccharides, including conversion to glycosides, oxidation to aldonic acids, and reduction to alditols, are described along with defining and testing reducing sugars.
    • 5.5: Disaccharides
      Disaccharides, including maltose, cellobiose, lactose, and sucrose, and the nomenclature of the glycosidic linkage are described
    • 5.6: Oligosaccharides
      Blood types based on the oligosaccharides attached to the red blood cell surfaces and blood compatibility based on the blood type are described.
    • 5.7: Polysaccharides
      Structures and some characteristics of polysaccharides, including starches, cellulose, and chitin, are described.

    This page titled 5: Carbohydrates is shared under a Public Domain license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Muhammad Arif Malik.

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