Chemistry is largely about chemical changes. Indeed, if there were no chemical changes, chemistry as such would not exist! Chemical changes are a fundamental part of chemistry. Because chemical changes are so central, it may be no surprise that chemistry has developed some special ways of presenting them.
- 4.1: Prelude to Chemical Reactions
- The space shuttle—and any other rocket-based system—uses chemical reactions to propel itself into space and maneuver itself when it goes into orbit. The rockets that lift the orbiter are of two different types. Although the solid rocket boosters each have a significantly lower mass than the liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen tanks, they provide over 80% of the lift needed to put the shuttle into orbit—all because of chemical reactions.
- 4.2: The Chemical Equation
- A chemical equation is a concise description of a chemical reaction. Proper chemical equations are balanced.
- 4.3: Types of Chemical Reactions - Single and Double Replacement Reactions
- A single-replacement reaction replaces one element for another in a compound. The periodic table or an activity series can help predict whether single-replacement reactions occur. A double-replacement reaction exchanges the cations (or the anions) of two ionic compounds. A precipitation reaction is a double-replacement reaction in which one product is a solid precipitate. Solubility rules are used to predict whether some double-replacement reactions will occur.
- 4.4: Ionic Equations - A Closer Look
- Ionic compounds that dissolve separate into individual ions. Complete ionic equations show dissolved ionic solids as separated ions. Net ionic equations show only the ions and other substances that change in a chemical reaction.
- 4.5: Composition, Decomposition, and Combustion Reactions
- A composition reaction produces a single substance from multiple reactants. A decomposition reaction produces multiple products from a single reactant. Combustion reactions are the combination of some compound with oxygen to make oxides of the other elements as products (although nitrogen atoms react to make \(N_2\)).
- 4.6: Neutralization Reactions
- The Arrhenius definition of an acid is a substance that increases the amount of H+ in an aqueous solution. The Arrhenius definition of a base is a substance that increases the amount of OH- in an aqueous solution. Neutralization is the reaction of an acid and a base, which forms water and a salt. Net ionic equations for neutralization reactions may include solid acids, solid bases, solid salts, and water.
- 4.7: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
- Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions involve the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. Oxidation numbers are used to keep track of electrons in atoms. There are rules for assigning oxidation numbers to atoms. Oxidation is an increase in oxidation number (loss of electrons); reduction is a decrease in oxidation number (gain of electrons).
- 4.E: Chemical Reactions and Equations (Exercises)
- These are exercises and select solutions to accompany Chapter 4 of the "Beginning Chemistry" Textmap formulated around the Ball et al. textbook.
Thumbnail: Reaction of sodium and water breaks the glass vessel. (CC SA-BY-3.0; Tony Mach).