An inorganic nonaqueous solvent is a solvent other than water, that is not an organic compound. Common examples are liquid ammonia, liquid sulfur dioxide, sulfuryl chloride and sulfuryl chloride fluoride, phosphoryl chloride, dinitrogen tetroxide, antimony trichloride, bromine pentafluoride, hydrogen fluoride, pure sulfuric acid and other inorganic acids. These solvents are used in chemical research and industry for reactions that cannot occur in aqueous solutions or require a special environment.
- 9.5: Liquid Sulfur Dioxide
- Sulfur dioxide is a versatile inert solvent widely used for dissolving highly oxidizing salts.
- 9.6: Liquid Ammonia
- Liquid ammonia is the best-known and most widely studied nonaqueous ionising solvent. Its most conspicuous property is its ability to dissolve alkali metals to form highly coloured, electrically conductive solutions containing solvated electrons. Apart from these remarkable solutions, much of the chemistry in liquid ammonia can be classified by analogy with related reactions in aqueous solutions.
- 9.7: Liquid Hydrogen Fluoride
- Dry hydrogen fluoride readily dissolves low-valent metal fluorides as well as several molecular fluorides. Many proteins and carbohydrates can be dissolved in dry HF and recovered from it. In contrast, most non-fluoride inorganic chemicals react with HF rather than dissolving.
Alkali Metal–Liquid Ammonia Solutions. Most metals are insoluble in virtually all solvents, but the alkali metals (and the heavier alkaline earth metals) dissolve readily in liquid ammonia to form solvated metal cations and solvated electrons, which give the solution a deep blue color. Image copyrighted by the Klein research group.