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21: The p-Block Elements

  • Page ID
    24501
    • 21.1: The Elements of Group 13
      Compounds of the group 13 elements with oxygen are thermodynamically stable. Many of the anomalous properties of the group 13 elements can be explained by the increase in Zeff moving down the group. Isolation of the group 13 elements requires a large amount of energy because compounds of the group 13 elements with oxygen are thermodynamically stable. Boron behaves chemically like a nonmetal, whereas its heavier congeners exhibit metallic behavior. Many of the inconsistencies observed in the prop
    • 21.2: The Elements of Group 14
      Group 14 elements show the greatest diversity in chemical behavior of any group; covalent bond strengths decease with increasing atomic size, and ionization energies are greater than expected, increasing from C to Pb. Because the covalent bond strength decreases with increasing atomic size and greater-than-expected ionization energies due to an increase in Zeff, the stability of the +2 oxidation state increases from carbon to lead.
    • 21.3: The Elements of Group 15 (The Pnicogens)
      The reactivity of the heavier group 15 elements decreases down the group, as does the stability of their catenated compounds. In group 15, nitrogen and phosphorus behave chemically like nonmetals, arsenic and antimony behave like semimetals, and bismuth behaves like a metal. Nitrogen forms compounds in nine different oxidation states. The stability of the +5 oxidation state decreases from phosphorus to bismuth because of the inert-pair effect. Due to their higher electronegativity, the lighter p
    • 21.4: The Elements of Group 16 (The Chalcogens)
      The chalcogens have no stable metallic elements. The tendency to catenate, the strength of single bonds, and the reactivity all decrease moving down the group. Because the electronegativity of the chalcogens decreases down the group, so does their tendency to acquire two electrons to form compounds in the −2 oxidation state. The lightest member, oxygen, has the greatest tendency to form multiple bonds with other elements.
    • 21.5: The Elements of Group 17 (The Halogens)
      The halogens are highly reactive. All halogens have relatively high ionization energies, and the acid strength and oxidizing power of their oxoacids decreases down the group. The halogens are so reactive that none is found in nature as the free element; instead, all but iodine are found as halide salts with the X− ion. Their chemistry is exclusively that of nonmetals. Consistent with periodic trends, ionization energies decrease down the group.
    • 21.6: The Elements of Group 18 (The Noble Gases)
      The noble gases are characterized by their high ionization energies and low electron affinities. Potent oxidants are needed to oxidize the noble gases to form compounds in positive oxidation states. The noble gases have a closed-shell valence electron configuration. The ionization energies of the noble gases decrease with increasing atomic number. Only highly electronegative elements can form stable compounds with the noble gases.
    • 21.E: The p-Block Elements (Exercises)

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