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Chemistry LibreTexts

1: Intro to Chemical Structure and Resonance

  • Page ID
    • 1.1: Drawing Chemical Structures
      Kekulé Formulas or structural formulas display the atoms of the molecule in the order they are bonded. Condensed structural formulas show the order of atoms like a structural formula but are written in a single line to save space. Skeleton formulas or Shorthand formulas or line-angle formulas are used to write carbon and hydrogen atoms more efficiently by replacing the letters with lines. Isomers have the same molecular formula, but different structural formulas
    • 1.2: Electron-Dot Model of Bonding - Lewis Structures
      A general chemistry review of how to draw good Lewis structures and calculate formal charge.
    • 1.3: VSPER Theory- The Effect of Lone Pairs
      The VSEPR model can predict the structure of nearly any molecule or polyatomic ion in which the central atom is a nonmetal, as well as the structures of many molecules and polyatomic ions with a central metal atom. The VSEPR model is not a theory; it does not attempt to explain observations. Instead, it is a counting procedure that accurately predicts the three-dimensional structures of a large number of compounds, which cannot be predicted using the Lewis electron-pair approach.
    • 1.4: Electronegativity and Bond Polarity (Review)
      Recognizing and distinguishing between polar and nonpolar compounds is an essential skill for organic chemistry.  Polarity is the underlying factor of intermolecular forces and polar bonds are often a source of chemical reactivity.
    • 1.5: Resonance
      Resonance delocalizes shared electrons over three or more atoms to lower the electron density and stabilize the compound or ion.
    • 1.6: Molecular Orbitals and Covalent Bonding
      Just as the positions and energies of electrons in atoms can be described in terms of atomic orbitals (AOs), the positions and energies of electrons in molecules can be described in terms of molecular orbitals (MOs).
    • 1.7: Hybrid Orbitals- Bonding in Complex Molecules and Practice Problems