In Chapter 6, we discussed the properties of gases. In this chapter, we consider some properties of liquids and solids. As a review, the table below lists some general properties of the three phases of matter.
|Gas||fills entire container||low||high|
|Liquid||fills a container from bottom to top||high||low|
- 14.1: Prelude to Solids and Liquids
- Liquids flow when a small force is placed on them, even if only very slowly. Solids may deform under a small force, but they return to their original shape when the force is relaxed. This is how glass behaves: it goes back to its original shape (unless it breaks under the applied force). Observers also point out that telescopes with glass lenses to focus light still do so even decades after manufacture—a circumstance that would not be so if the lens were liquid and flowed.
- 14.2: Interactions between Molecules
- The melting point is the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid. Intermolecular forces have a strong influence on melting point.
- 14.3: Properties of Liquids and Solids
- All liquids evaporate. If volume is limited, evaporation eventually reaches a dynamic equilibrium, and a constant vapor pressure is maintained. All liquids experience surface tension, an imbalance of forces at the surface of the liquid. All liquids experience capillary action, demonstrating either capillary rise or capillary depression in the presence of other substances. Solids can be divided into amorphous solids and crystalline solids.
- 14.4: Surface Tension and Viscosity
- The surface tension of a liquid is a measure of the elastic force in the liquid's surface. Liquids with strong intermolecular forces have higher surface tensions than liquids with weaker forces.
- 14.5: Evaporation and Condensation
- Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to its vapor below the boiling temperature of the liquid. Condensation is the change of state from a gas to a liquid. As the temperature increases, the rate of evaporation increases.
- 14.6: Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation
- Phase changes can occur between any two phases of matter. All phase changes occur with a simultaneous change in energy. All phase changes are isothermal.
- 14.7: Intermolecular Forces- Dispersion, Dipole–Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding, and Ion-Dipole
- All substances experience dispersion forces between their particles. Substances that are polar experience dipole-dipole interactions. Substances with covalent bonds between an H atom and N, O, or F atoms experience hydrogen bonding. The preferred phase of a substance depends on the strength of the intermolecular force and the energy of the particles.