There are a few basic numerical and experimental tools with which you must be familiar. Fundamental measurements in analytical chemistry, such as mass, use base SI units, such as the kilogram. Other units, such as energy, are defined in terms of these base units. When reporting a measurement, we must be careful to include only those digits that are significant, and to maintain the uncertainty implied by these significant figures when trans- forming measurements into results.
The relative amount of a constituent in a sample is expressed as a concentration. There are many ways to express concentration, the most common of which are molarity, weight percent, volume percent, weight-to-volume percent, parts per million and parts per billion. Concentrations also can be expressed using p-functions.
Stoichiometric relationships and calculations are important in many quantitative analyses. The stoichiometry between the reactants and the products of a chemical reaction are given by the coefficients of a balanced chemical reaction.
Balances, volumetric flasks, pipets, and ovens are standard pieces of equipment that you will use routinely in the analytical lab. You should be familiar with the proper way to use this equipment. You also should be familiar with how to prepare a stock solution of known concentration, and how to prepare a dilute solution from a stock solution.
parts per billion
parts per million