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4: Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium

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    • 4.1: Buffers
      A solution containing a mixture of an acid and its conjugate base, or of a base and its conjugate acid, is called a buffer solution. Unlike in the case of an acid, base, or salt solution, the hydronium ion concentration of a buffer solution does not change greatly when a small amount of acid or base is added to the buffer solution. The base (or acid) in the buffer reacts with the added acid (or base).
    • 4.2: Acid-Base Titrations
      A titration curve is a graph that relates the change in pH of an acidic or basic solution to the volume of added titrant. The characteristics of the titration curve are dependent on the specific solutions being titrated. The pH of the solution at the equivalence point may be greater than, equal to, or less than 7.00. The choice of an indicator for a given titration depends on the expected pH at the equivalence point of the titration, and the range of the color change of the indicator.
    • 4.3: pH and pOH calculation of weak acids and bases, polyprotic acids and bases titration curves
      The shape of a titration curve, a plot of pH versus the amount of acid or base added, provides important information about what is occurring in solution during a titration. The shapes of titration curves for weak acids and bases depend dramatically on the identity of the compound. The equivalence point of an acid–base titration is the point at which exactly enough acid or base has been added to react completely with the other component.
    • 4.4: Acid rain
      The damaging effects of acid rain have led to strong pressure on industry to minimize the release of harmful reactants. Acid rain is rainfall whose pH is less than 5.6, the value typically observed, due to the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide. Acid rain is caused by nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide produced by both natural processes and the combustion of fossil fuels. Eventually, these oxides react with oxygen and water to give nitric acid and sulfuric acid.
    • 4.5: Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)
      The solubility product (Ksp) is used to calculate equilibrium concentrations of the ions in solution, whereas the ion product (Q) describes concentrations that are not necessarily at equilibrium. The equilibrium constant for a dissolution reaction, called the solubility product (Ksp), is a measure of the solubility of a compound. Whereas solubility is usually expressed in terms of mass of solute per 100 mL of solvent, Ksp is defined in terms of the molar concentrations of the component ions.
    • 4.6: Solubility and Common ion effect
      Buffers are solutions that resist a change in pH after adding an acid or a base. Buffers contain a weak acid ( HA ) and its conjugate weak base (A−). Adding a strong electrolyte that contains one ion in common with a reaction system that is at equilibrium shifts the equilibrium in such a way as to reduce the concentration of the common ion. Buffers are characterized by their pH range and buffer capacity.
    • 4.7: Use of solubility properties for Chemical Separation
      A mixture of metal ions in a solution can be separated by precipitation with select anions. When a metal ion or a group of metal ions form insoluble salts with a particular anion, they can be separated from others by precipitation. We can also separate the anions by precipitating them with appropriate metal ions.
    • 4.8: Complex Ion Equilibria
      The formation of complex ions can substantially increase the solubility of sparingly soluble salts if the complex ion has a large Kf. A complex ion is a species formed between a central metal ion and one or more surrounding ligands, molecules or ions that contain at least one lone pair of electrons. Small, highly charged metal ions have the greatest tendency to act as Lewis acids and form complex ions. The equilibrium constant for the formation of the complex ion is the formation constant (Kf).
    • 4.E: Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium (More Practice Problems)
    • 4.E: Buffer, Solubility, Common Ion Effects, and Acid-Base Titration (Practice Problems with Answers)
      These are homework exercises to accompany the Textmap created for "Chemistry: The Central Science" by Brown et al.

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