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18: Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium

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    • 18.1: The Danger of Antifreeze
      An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid. An antifreeze mixture is used to achieve freezing-point depression for cold environments and also achieves boiling-point elevation to allow higher coolant temperature. Freezing and boiling points are colligative properties of a solution, which depend on the concentration of the dissolved substance. Ethylene glycol is poisonous to humans.
    • 18.2: Buffers- Solutions That Resist pH Change
      Buffers are solutions that resist a change in pH after adding an acid or a base. Buffers contain a weak acid ( HA ) and its conjugate weak base (A−). Adding a strong electrolyte that contains one ion in common with a reaction system that is at equilibrium shifts the equilibrium in such a way as to reduce the concentration of the common ion. Buffers are characterized by their pH range and buffer capacity.
    • 18.3: Buffer Effectiveness- Buffer Capacity and Buffer Range
    • 18.4: Titrations and pH Curves
      The shape of a titration curve, a plot of pH versus the amount of acid or base added, provides important information about what is occurring in solution during a titration. The shapes of titration curves for weak acids and bases depend dramatically on the identity of the compound. The equivalence point of an acid–base titration is the point at which exactly enough acid or base has been added to react completely with the other component.
    • 18.5: Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product Constant
      The solubility product (Ksp) is used to calculate equilibrium concentrations of the ions in solution, whereas the ion product (Q) describes concentrations that are not necessarily at equilibrium. The equilibrium constant for a dissolution reaction, called the solubility product (Ksp), is a measure of the solubility of a compound. Whereas solubility is usually expressed in terms of mass of solute per 100 mL of solvent, Ksp is defined in terms of the molar concentrations of the component ions.
    • 18.6: Precipitation
      A mixture of metal ions in a solution can be separated by precipitation with select anions. When a metal ion or a group of metal ions form insoluble salts with a particular anion, they can be separated from others by precipitation. We can also separate the anions by precipitating them with appropriate metal ions.
    • 18.7: Qualitative Chemical Analysis
      In qualitative analysis, the identity, not the amount, of metal ions present in a mixture is determined. The technique consists of selectively precipitating only a few kinds of metal ions at a time under given sets of conditions. Consecutive precipitation steps become progressively less selective until almost all the metal ions are precipitated. Other additional steps are needed to separate metal ions that precipitate together.
    • 18.8: Complex Ion Equilibria
      The formation of complex ions can substantially increase the solubility of sparingly soluble salts if the complex ion has a large Kf. A complex ion is a species formed between a central metal ion and one or more surrounding ligands, molecules or ions that contain at least one lone pair of electrons. Small, highly charged metal ions have the greatest tendency to act as Lewis acids and form complex ions. The equilibrium constant for the formation of the complex ion is the formation constant (Kf).
    • 18.E: Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium (Exercises)

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