In this chapter, you will learn how to predict the position of the balance and the yield of a product of a reaction under specific conditions, how to change a reaction's conditions to increase or reduce yield, and how to evaluate an equilibrium system's reaction to disturbances.
- 2.0: Prelude to Equilibrium
- Reactions can occur in both directions simultaneously (reactants to products and products to reactants) and eventually reach a state of balance. Reactions can occur in both directions simultaneously (reactants to products and products to reactants) and eventually reach a state of balance.
- 2.1: Chemical Equilibria
- A reaction is at equilibrium when the amounts of reactants or products no longer change. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process, meaning the rate of formation of products by the forward reaction is equal to the rate at which the products re-form reactants by the reverse reaction.
- 2.2: Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant
- For a reversible process (with no external work), the change in free energy can be expressed in terms of volume, pressure, entropy, and temperature. If the products and reactants are in their standard states and ΔG° < 0, then K > 1, and products are favored over reactants at equilibrium. If ΔG° > 0, then K < 1, and reactants are favored over products at equilibrium. If ΔG° = 0, then K=1, and neither reactants nor products are favored at equilibrium. We can use the measured equilibrium constant
- 2.3: Equilibrium Constants
- For any reaction that is at equilibrium, the reaction quotient Q is equal to the equilibrium constant K for the reaction. If a reactant or product is a pure solid, a pure liquid, or the solvent in a dilute solution, the concentration of this component does not appear in the expression for the equilibrium constant. At equilibrium, the values of the concentrations of the reactants and products are constant and the reaction quotient will always equal K.
- 2.4: Shifting Equilibria - Le Châtelier’s Principle
- Systems at equilibrium can be disturbed by changes to temperature, concentration, and, in some cases, volume and pressure; volume and pressure changes will disturb equilibrium if the number of moles of gas is different on the reactant and product sides of the reaction. The system's response to these disturbances is described by Le Châtelier's principle: The system will respond in a way that counteracts the disturbance. Not all changes to the system result in a disturbance of the equilibrium.
- 2.5: Equilibrium Calculations
- The ratios of the rate of change in concentrations of a reaction are equal to the ratios of the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. The sign of the coefficient of X is positive when the concentration increases and negative when it decreases. We learned to approach three basic types of equilibrium problems. When given the concentrations of the reactants and products at equilibrium, we can solve for the equilibrium constant.
- 2.E: Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts (Exercises)
- These are homework exercises to accompany the Textmap created for "Chemistry" by OpenStax. Complementary General Chemistry question banks can be found for other Textmaps and can be accessed here. In addition to these publicly available questions, access to private problems bank for use in exams and homework is available to faculty only on an individual basis; please contact Delmar Larsen for an account with access permission.
Paul Flowers (University of North Carolina - Pembroke), Klaus Theopold (University of Delaware) and Richard Langley (Stephen F. Austin State University) with contributing authors. Textbook content produced by OpenStax College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/85abf193-2bd...firstname.lastname@example.org).