10: Aqueous Solutions
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Solutions were introduced in an earlier chapter as the mixture in which the substances involved are mixed at the molecular level. There was also a discussion about how solutions form based on the intermolecular forces that occur between solvent and solute particles. These ideas about solutions are important to understand as we move forward in this chapter to focus on a particular type of solution which is both very common and very important: aqueous solutions.
In section 10.1 we will continue some of the discussions around why substances dissolve, but focus here on the effects of external pressures such as pressure and temperature. In sections 10.2 and 10.3 we look at some of the numerical calculations that are important to consider for solutions. Finally, in section 10.4 we look at how the properties of the solvent are changed when it becomes a solution.
- 10.2: Measures of Concentration
- To define a solution precisely, we need to state its concentration: how much solute is dissolved in a certain amount of solvent. Words such as "dilute" or "concentrated" are used to describe solutions that have a little or a lot of dissolved solute, respectively. However "dilute" and "concentrated" are relative terms, and have meanings dependent on various factors. The mass/mass percent (% m/m) is defined as the mass of a solute divided by the mass of a solution times 100.
- 10.E: Solutions (Exercises)
- These are exercises and select solutions to accompany Chapter 11 of the "Beginning Chemistry" Textmap formulated around the Ball et al. textbook.