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Chemistry LibreTexts

4: Water

  • Page ID
    • 4.1: The Uniqueness of Water
      Water is everywhere!
    • 4.2: Predicting the Shapes of Molecules
      The 3 dimensional shape of a molecule can be predicted from the lewis structure and the number and type of electron group surrounding the central atom.
    • 4.3: Polarity of Bonds and Molecules
      Electronegativity is a measure of the relative attraction for the pair of electrons in a bond. Covalent bonds can be nonpolar or polar, depending on the electronegativities of the atoms involved. Molecules can be polar or nonpolar depending on the bonds involved.
    • 4.4: What makes molecules stick together? -- Intermolecular Forces
      All molecules interact with other molecules through intermolecular forces, attractions between individual molecules. The type of intermolecular force between molecules depends on the polarity and structure of the molecules involved. The preferred phase of a substance depends on the strength of the intermolecular force and the energy of the particles.
    • 4.5: Electron Transfer - Ionic Bonds
      The attraction of oppositely charged ions, a cation and anion, caused by electron transfer is called an ionic bond. The strength of ionic bonding depends on the magnitude of the charges and the sizes of the ions.
    • 4.6: Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
      Formulas for ionic compounds contain the symbols and number of each atom present in a compound in the lowest whole number ratio.
    • 4.7: Naming Ionic Compounds
      Ionic compounds follow a naming system that shows the type of elements, the charge on the ions, and the number of ions involved in the compound. This name can be determined by looking the chemical formula for the ionic compound.
    • 4.8: Defining terms associated with solutions
      Solutions are composed of a solvent (major component) and a solute (minor component), and the amount of solute per solvent is known as the concentration.
    • 4.9: What is a solution?
      A solution is a homogeneous mixture-a mixture of two or more substances that are so intimately mixed that the mixture behaves in many ways like a single substance. Many chemical reactions occur when the reactants are dissolved in solution.
    • 4.10: Aqueous Solutions and Solubility - Compounds Dissolved in Water
      When ionic compounds dissolve in water, the ions in the solid separate and disperse uniformly throughout the solution because water molecules surround and solvate the ions, reducing the strong electrostatic forces between them. This process represents a physical change known as dissociation.
    • 4.11: Quantitative Units of Concentration
      To be able to perform experiments and calculations for solutions, concentrations is often used. There are several units of concentration including molarity, mass percentage, parts per thousand (ppt), parts per million (ppm), and parts per billion (ppb).
    • 4.12: Concentrations as Conversion Factors
      Know how to apply concentration units as conversion factors.
    • 4.13: Dilutions and Concentrations
      Calculate the new concentration or volume for a dilution or concentration of a solution.
    • 4.14: Types of Chemical Reactions - Single and Double Replacement Reactions
      A single-replacement reaction replaces one element for another in a compound. A double-replacement reaction exchanges the cations (or the anions) of two ionic compounds. A precipitation reaction is a double-replacement reaction in which one product is a solid precipitate. Solubility rules are used to predict whether some double-replacement reactions will occur.
    • 4.15: Precipitation Reactions
      A precipitation reaction is a reaction that yields an insoluble product—a precipitate—when two solutions are mixed. Thus precipitation reactions are a subclass of exchange reactions that occur between ionic compounds when one of the products is insoluble. Because both components of each compound change partners, such reactions are sometimes called double-displacement reactions.
    • 4.16: Arrhenius Acids and Bases
      An Arrhenius acid is a compound that increases the H+ ion concentration in aqueous solution. An Arrhenius base is a compound that increases the OH− ion concentration in aqueous solution. The reaction between an Arrhenius acid and an Arrhenius base is called neutralization and results in the formation of water and a salt.
    • 4.17: Reactions of Acids and Bases
      When an acid and a base are combined, water and a salt are the products. Salts are ionic compounds containing a positive ion other than H+ and a negative ion other than the hydroxide ion, OH-. Double displacement reactions of this type are called neutralization reactions. Salt solutions do not always have a pH of 7, however. Through a process known as hydrolysis, the ions produced when an acid and base combine may react with the water to produce slightly acidic or basic solutions.
    • 4.18: The pH Scale
      pH is a logarithmic function of [H+]. [H+] can be calculated directly from pH. pOH is related to pH and can be easily calculated from pH.
    • 4.E: Solutions (Exercises)