# 6: Organic Chemistry


• 6.1: Organic Chemistry
Today organic chemistry is the study of the chemistry of the carbon compounds, and inorganic chemistry is the study of the chemistry of all other elements. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds, nearly all of which also contain hydrogen atoms.
• 6.2: Structures and Names of Alkanes
Simple alkanes exist as a homologous series, in which adjacent members differ by a $$CH_2$$ unit.
• 6.3: Branched-Chain Alkanes
Alkanes with four or more carbon atoms can exist in isomeric forms.
• 6.4: Condensed Structural and Line-Angle Formulas
Condensed chemical formulas show the hydrogen atoms (or other atoms or groups) right next to the carbon atoms to which they are attached. Line-angle formulas imply a carbon atom at the corners and ends of lines. Each carbon atom is understood to be attached to enough hydrogen atoms to give each carbon atom four bonds.
• 6.5: IUPAC Nomenclature
Alkanes have both common names and systematic names, specified by IUPAC.
• 6.6: Constitutional Isomers
• 6.7: Physical Properties of Alkanes
Alkanes are nonpolar compounds that are low boiling and insoluble in water.
• 6.8: Chemical Properties of Alkanes
The alkanes and cycloalkanes, with the exception of cyclopropane, are probably the least chemically reactive class of organic compounds. Alkanes contain strong carbon-carbon single bonds and strong carbon-hydrogen bonds. The carbon-hydrogen bonds are only very slightly polar. Alkanes can be burned, alkanes can react with some of the halogens, breaking carbon-hydrogen bonds, and alkanes can crack by breaking the carbon-carbon bonds.
• 6.9: Cycloalkanes
Many organic compounds have cyclic structures.
• 6.10: Alkenes- Structures and Names
Alkenes are hydrocarbons with a carbon-to-carbon double bond.
• 6.11: Physical Properties of Alkenes
The physical properties of alkenes are much like those of the alkanes: their boiling points increase with increasing molar mass, and they are insoluble in water.
• 6.12: Chemical Properties of Alkenes
Alkenes undergo addition reactions, adding such substances as hydrogen, bromine, and water across the carbon-to-carbon double bond.
• 6.13: Polymers
Molecules having carbon-to-carbon double bonds can undergo addition polymerization.
• 6.14: Alkynes
Alkynes are similar to alkenes in both physical and chemical properties. For example, alkynes undergo many of the typical addition reactions of alkenes. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) names for alkynes parallel those of alkenes, except that the family ending is -yne rather than -ene. The IUPAC name for acetylene is ethyne. The names of other alkynes are illustrated in the following exercises.
• 6.15: Aromatic Compounds- Benzene
Aromatic hydrocarbons appear to be unsaturated, but they have a special type of bonding and do not undergo addition reactions.
• 6.16: Structure and Nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds
Aromatic compounds contain a benzene ring or have certain benzene-like properties; for our purposes, you can recognize aromatic compounds by the presence of one or more benzene rings in their structure.

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