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Chemistry LibreTexts

2: Trends and Bonding

  • Page ID
    270390
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    • 2.1: The Periodic Table
      The chemical elements are arranged in a chart called the periodic table. Some characteristics of the elements are related to their position on the periodic table.
    • 2.2: Periodic Trends- Atomic Radius
    • 2.3: Periodic Trends- Ionization Energy
    • 2.4: Periodic Trends- Electronegativity
    • 2.5: Prelude to Ionic Bonding and Simple Ionic Compounds
      We will see that the word salt has a specific meaning in chemistry, but to most people, this word refers to table salt. This kind of salt is used as a condiment throughout the world, but it was not always so abundant. Two thousand years ago, Roman soldiers received part of their pay as salt, which explains why the words salt and salary come from the same Latin root (salarium). Today, table salt is either mined or obtained from the evaporation of saltwater.
    • 2.6: Prelude to Covalent Bonding and Simple Molecular Compounds
      Cholesterol, a compound that is sometimes in the news, is a white, waxy solid produced in the liver of every animal, including humans. It is important for building cell membranes and in producing certain hormones (chemicals that regulate cellular activity in the body). As such, it is necessary for life, but why is cholesterol the object of attention? Most medical professionals recommend diets that minimize the amount of ingested cholesterol as a way of preventing heart attacks and strokes.
    • 2.7: Lewis Dot and Bonding
      Why are some substances chemically bonded molecules and others are an association of ions? The answer to this question depends upon the electronic structures of the atoms and nature of the chemical forces within the compounds. Although there are no sharply defined boundaries, chemical bonds are typically classified into three main types: ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and metallic bonds.
    • 2.8: Covalent Bonds
      You have already seen examples of substances that contain covalent bonds. One substance mentioned previously was water (H₂O). You can tell from its formula that it is not an ionic compound; it is not composed of a metal and a nonmetal. Consequently, its properties are different from those of ionic compounds. A covalent bond is formed between two atoms by sharing electrons.
    • 2.9: Drawing Lewis Structures
      Some molecules must have multiple covalent bonds between atoms to satisfy the octet rule.
    • 2.10: Characteristics of Molecules
      A molecule has a certain mass, called the molecular mass. Simple molecules have geometries that can be determined from VSEPR theory.
    • 2.11: Exceptions to the Octet Rule
      Every spring, millions of Americans file their income tax forms. The different rules determine how much tax a person pays. There are also exceptions to the rules. You pay less tax if you are married and/or have children. There are certain limits on how much money you can make before paying taxes. The rule is that you pay taxes, but there are also exceptions based on your personal situation. The bonding rules for molecules are generally applicable, but there are some exceptions allowed.


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